Research on the legal protection path of NFT

Heart of the Metaverse 2023-01-24 16:26:29 阅读数:999

researchlegalprotectionpathnft

非同质化通证(Non-Fungible Token,业界简称“NFT” ),是基于区块链技术,通过ERC-721(Ethereum Request for Comment)等1 Creating chain property rights certificate standard agreement.近两年来,As the block chain technology application scenario gradually rich,NFTWorldwide attention.在国内,Represented by digital collectionNFT产业迅速崛起,Form the artist、Network service platform and active participation of consumer digital industry market.NFTAs the technology driven by formation of the emerging industries form,Its products in the domestic law of the legal nature of、Legal regulation and protection, etc,There is controversy.针对这些问题,The author thinks that shall fully understand the objectiveNFTOn the basis of technology and the digital economy logic,With the appropriate forward-looking perspective,Through perfecting legislation、完善监管,And develop with Chinese characteristics of the industrial development policy and so on way to solve.

一、NFT的技术原理

NFTIn the chain of blocks on digital books embodied in an encrypted data unit,The data unit mainly containing block chain address、The property mapping number and links three kinds of information.Contains information about the non homogeneous data unit is a significant difference between in the currency、以太币等同质化通证.当NFTWith a certain property mapping relations,Becomes the property in certain block only a document of title of the chain,Based on the technical features of the block chain,NFTProperty rights can be agreed on all nodes in the chain,NFTProperty rights of production and circulation can be complete back、不可篡改.当NFTThe mapping relationship with a particular property was cut off,例如存储图片、Music link failure,Just as a unit of dataNFTWill lose value.因此,只有NFTWith specific property anchor timing,Is at the legal level to further discuss the significance of2.

Based on the above technology principle,NFTWith the non homogeneity、Decentralization and tradable features3.Non homogeneity inNFTRepresented by the property has a specificity、唯一性和不可分割性,Significantly different from other homogeneous tokens and fiat.Decentralization refers to the chain block as the underlying technologyNFT,Since the creation of not completely depends on a specific platform and exist.When the server is unable to provide service,NFTMapping of digital works、游戏道具等,Can be recovery by other nodes in the chain of books,In other scenarios continue to use.NFTAt the same time also have some characteristics of ownership,In addition to possess、使用、收益外,The right holder can also exercise the transfer、赠与、Destruction of disciplinary power such as,故NFTAlso has a tradable sex,并由此产生NFT市场.NFTThe characteristics and function in the“物流服务、教育管理、电子政务、智慧司法等众多领域均有应用潜力,理论上还可以承载精细的数据开发利用收益分配机制,助力数据要素市场发展” ,被视为“Yuan value of the underlying structure of the universe”.4

二、NFTThe classification and protection

NFTShould be incorporated into the domestic what civil rights system to protect and regulate,目前尚无定论.从形式上看,NFTExists in the network,Have a certain property attribute,As can be included in the category of virtual property.As prescribed in article one hundred and twenty-seven of the civil code of our country:“法律对数据、网络虚拟财产的保护有规定的,依照其规定.”The terms in the civil code of civil rights section,根据立法本意,“Which was first declared terms,Is legally declared the data、The scope of the virtual property right into the object;This is also a cause terms,Is the data、Specific rules of network virtual property protection for specially stipulated by.”5 可见,For how to define the network virtual property,NFTWhether to belong to network virtual property,Network virtual property rights structure,The current law can't give accurate answer.司法层面,From hangzhou Internet court“胖虎打疫苗”Case to see,当NFTMapping property for work,The holder of the choice to related rights in copyright law as the basis of its request to protect,The court to judge the copyright law shall apply to6,故NFTWorks for copyright law to protect,Can be formed in the judicial level path.但是对于NFTMapping of other property,What kind of specification shall apply to protect,There is no judicial case validation.笔者认为,NFTThe protection and regulation,Should be to distinguishNFTOn the basis of mapping property category respectively discuss,当NFTMapping property separately for work、Personality interest、Network virtual property rights such as the object,Is subject to the civil rights of the corresponding specification.

(一)作品NFT

作品,是指文学、艺术和科学领域内具有独创性并能以一定形式表现的智力成果.7 当NFTMapping property for work,Can be created online digital works,例如Beeple 的《Everydays: The First 5000 Days》,无聊猿(Bored Ape Yacht Club),Can also be offline creation,通过数字化手段“复制”Online to work.Online digital works created its essence is still the intellectual achievements of IP,In the network virtual property, there is no accurate definition,Should not be directly included in the scope of network virtual property.现阶段的NFTIn the majority with art works,For example, the domestic various countries tide、Cartoon-like figures collection,Part of the platform are also gradually developNFT音乐作品.NFTWork value depends on factors such as originality and scarcity of works.NFTWork right main body should be the copyright owner,NFT铸造、发行、Flow behavior such as applicable copyright law to adjust.

(二)肖像NFT

肖像是通过影像、雕塑、绘画等方式在一定载体上所反映的特定自然人可以被识别的外部形象.8 Social public figure's portrait usually have high commercial value,肖像NFTHas been gradually into the commercial development domain,基于NBADevelopment of star cardNFTPrice is as high as tens of thousands of dollars.此外,Portrait with personal attributes,The right holder may cast includes affective factors、A particular historical moment private portraitNFT,以资纪念.肖像NFTCarries on the image of the value depends on the personality interests and commercial interests.肖像NFTThe rights of the subject is right,NFT的铸造、发行、Flow behavior such as controlled by the personality right related rights.根据民法典的规定,Rights and interests of voice also can consult applicable.

(三)网络虚拟财产NFT

Our country law there is no concept of network virtual property、Right content make that clear,But confirmed that the principle of network virtual property shall be protected by law,Network virtual property belongs to the civil rights object.Some scholars believe that the network virtual property is the era of network virtual objects,Belong to the real right object.9 Some scholars believe that the network virtual property rights exercise must be through the network service contract and match the software licensing contract,Belong to the creditor's rights and the object.10 Based on the analysis of the different Angle of view,Gradually formed the real right of the object of rights to say、债权说、Intellectual property rights and new rights point of view.在司法领域,Although the network virtual property is a lack of concrete law,But the court usually think network game account、Props such as fall within the scope of virtual property.11 笔者认为,网络虚拟财产NFTThe future will be yuan underlying architecture of the universe,With the disorderly development of computer technology and application scenario innovation,The category of the virtual property also will more and more rich.该类NFTThe property of the map for the virtual property,虚拟财产NFTOn the basis of different kinds of,Will show different use value and exchange value,But it will still be under the control of the network virtual property related rights,Although the current at the legislative level is still no further regulation of network virtual property,But does not affect the network virtual propertyNFTProtect the path to confirm.

(四)其他财产+NFT

Outside nowNFTThe property of the species showed a trend of diversification of the.For example, the application based on Ethernet fangENS域名12 NFT,To security encryption asset items and amount of insuranceNFT(yinsure . finance).某些NFTThere are multiple rights aggregation form,For example, the musician releases digital music worksNFTContains the physical tickets for the concert in front of the right of first refusal.NFTTechnology not only can be applied to copyright、肖像、Virtual property, etc,Theory can also be applied to all has the use value and exchange value of real assets,例如房产、车辆等.因此,尽管NFTLook from the form exists in network,As for the network virtual property,但如果将使用NFTThe property of the technology were included in the category of network virtual property,On the one hand, can lead to the extension of network virtual property generalization,Concept cannot be accurately defined,On the other hand lead toNFTMapping of various types of property protection in the applicable law conflict.因此,In case of any other property useNFT技术时,Still the object of rights shall be based on the specific property as,Apply to the corresponding specification for civil rights.

三、关于NFTIndustry of the rule of law guarantee level some prospect

(一)Improve the network virtual property law

Network virtual property isNFTThe important subset,Now in addition to article one hundred and twenty-seven of the civil code of network virtual property rights to the protection of the sex,There is no further refinement rules,The network virtual propertyNFT的保护,Still could not be in accordance with the state.No matter from the Angle of the legal system to further improve,Or from the perspective of development strategy of digital economy,Improve the network virtual property law,Should carry on national legislation agenda.Along with the blessingNFTTechnology of all kinds of network virtual property emerge,Virtual property belongs、使用、Chain within and across the chain transfer、抵押、Inheritance and other related legal problems will ensue,In a short period of time regulation and judicial cases may be able to handle,But if in the long time dimension can't can depend on,Will cause regulatory domain inside、The judicial field disposal of conflicts between the internal supervision and judicial even.因此,Improve the network virtual property law,Establish perfect network virtual property rights system,Is the current promotionNFTThe urgent demand of industrial development,Is the important guarantee to the healthy development of the digital economy strategy.

(二)完善NFT监管机制

国内NFTAt present the main industry of speculative、Regulatory policy uncertainty risk, etc.In terms of regulatory,NFTMarket regulation related with brigade headquarters、国家知识产权局、工信部、网信办、The public security supervisor、科技部、央行数字货币研究所,The financial regulatory authority、外管局等,The present situation of the present a long governance.From the point of industry development stage,全球NFTIndustry is still at the primary eruption phase,虽然在2022In the first quarter afterNFTMarket volume decline13,但是NFTApplication range is still expanding trend.在国内,根据监管要求,NFTThe development of must clear with tokens“切割”,意味着我国NFTWill follow to the healthy development of financialization path.笔者认为,对于国内NFT的监管,One is to set aside enough space for industrial development,Build a guard against financial risks、国家安全风险、Risk of money laundering and other major risk after the bottom line,应该鼓励NFTTechnology applied to the new scene、新产品,To enhance the level of productivity.2 it is to gradually change the present stage long governance situation,Set up a national level technology supervision center block chain,Reduce the conflicting policies from different departments、The pattern of water conservancy, Kowloon,Reduce industrial development fetter.3 it is to pay close attention to nationalNFT监管动态,The pros and cons of outside supervision and the use,The introduction of mature regulatory model,对NFTMarket participation main body the behavior of the scientific evaluation.Fourth, further refinement rules,For example, clear the definition of digital collection,NFTWhether trading platform should abide by certain rules and its legal basis, etc.Although the details of these rules is a long process,But the relevant state organs shall keep enough,With the development of the industry in time perfect regulation rules.

(三)统一NFTBasic civil disputes the referee thought

当前我国NFTMain products are digital collection,Other categories of propertyNFT尚不多见,随着NFTIndustrial policy and regulatory rules become clear,各类NFTProduct or will appear,Disputes will come.准确理解NFT的技术原理,Correctly apply laws,Is a good trial involvedNFTThe premise of civil disputes.NFTIs essentially in the chain of blocks on the establishment of property rights certificate,涉NFTThe legal relations of the dispute recognition,如前文分析,应当由NFTThe mapping is determined by the specific property of category.Based on the workNFT署名、改编、发行、Of dispute arising out of information network dissemination, etc,Is subject to the relevant laws and regulations of the copyright law.Based on the imageNFT制作、使用、Public behavior such as the dispute,Relevant laws and regulations shall apply image rights.In the case of carrier aggregation of multiple rights,The court shall, according to the plaintiff's selection,Confirm the need to review the legal relationship.有效识别NFTCivil disputes in the specific legal relationship,Is of great significance to the judicial organs correctly handle such cases,For the plan,Science fair to judge feedback,也会为NFTProtect the healthy development of the industry.

注释

1. ERC-721Is the earliest standard protocol,除ERCAll kinds of standard,NEO、EOS、TRON、FLOW、Binance 和 COSMOS Also has the corresponding blocks, such as chain NFT 标准协议.

2. Later, the term "NFT,均指NFTData unit and specific property of anchor.

3. See Liao Xiaoli、Seeks to start:《我国NFTProject risk and compliance points》,《中国律师》,2022年第4期.

4. See the Shanghai lawNFT课题组《NFTPolicy research report》,《上海法学研究》集刊,2022年第11卷(2022World conference on artificial intelligence, the rule of law youth BBS corpus).

5. See monchi editor:《The People's Republic of China civil code general make up reading》,中国法制出版社2020年版,第48页.

6. See the Internet in hangzhou court(2022)浙0192民初1008号民事判决书.

7. 《中华人民共和国著作权法》第三条.

8. 《中华人民共和国民法典》The second paragraph of article one thousand and eighteen of the.

9. See Yang lixin《民法总则规定网络虚拟财产的含义及重要价值》,《东方法学》,2017年第3期.

10. See wang lei《According to network virtual property creditor's rights of insisted that——And the theory of network virtual property in the civil law system in our country position》,《江汉论坛》2017年第1期.

11. 参见(2022)浙0802民初4268The civil judgment and(2019)粤0192民初70号民事判决书.

12. Ethereum Name Service,以太坊域名服务.

13. 根据Nonfungible数据显示,2022年以来,NFT交易量持续下滑,尤其是自3月以来,NFTVolume compared with a peak last year(2021年9-10月)缩水了80%.

作者简介

Liu xing,Now at the Beijing from the law firm Shanghai branch office,Beijing cultural law yuan, deputy director of professional committee of the universe.The Internet, a former Beijing court judge specific number,During the court,Has to undertake all kinds of civil and commercial、Intellectual property cases more than7000件.To undertake the case many times by CCTV and other media reported,Many professional research article in a Beijing court system in winning.

 

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