[paper sharing] decentralized Society: looking for the soul of Web3 (Part 2)

Li Dagou 2022-05-14 11:13:42 阅读数:698


Link to the original text :https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4105763 Author of the paper :E. Glen Weyl, Puja Ohlhaver, Vitalik Buterin Translator :[email protected], Yay[email protected]

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5 Multiple senses

An example of the increasingly prominent multi network goods in the digital world is the predictive model based on user data . Artistic Intelligence (AI) And forecasting markets try to predict future events based on data mainly from people . event , Mainly based on data obtained from people . But both models have different limitations , And almost the opposite . On the contrary . The dominant mode of artificial intelligence avoids the incentive mechanism , But hoarding ( Public or private surveillance ) Data and data , And conduct synthetic monitoring on it ) data source , The proprietary model is synthesized into a large-scale nonlinear prediction result -- Use the default web2 Yes "usus " The monopoly , Without providing any data to workers "fructus". Forecasting the market takes the opposite approach , People bet on the results , Hope to get economic benefits . Economic incentives that rely entirely on financial speculation (" Fruit "), Instead of synthesizing the gambler's beliefs and the gambler's beliefs to produce a composable model . meanwhile , The conclusions of both paradigms are described as " objective " The conclusion of truth ; The artificial intelligence model is described as " general " or " The general AI model is described as " Generally " or " intelligence ", Forecasting the market is described as summarizing all the beliefs of market participants into a single number : Equilibrium price .

A more productive paradigm is to avoid these extremes , And absorb the advantages of both , At the same time, make up for their weaknesses and enrich their breadth . We suggest that the complexity of nonlinear artificial intelligence model should be carefully combined with the market incentive mechanism for predicting the market , Turn passive data workers into active data creators . With this wealth of information rooted in the sociality of data creators, we illustrate DeSoc How to release a more powerful multi-element network than any other method (ed) intelligence .

5.1 Forecast market to forecast diversity

The purpose of predicting the market is to gather beliefs based on the wealth and risk appetite of those willing to gamble - Money makes the mare go . however , such " Survival test " It's not an ideal way to gather beliefs . A zero sum game , The gain of one trader is the loss of another trader , It assumes a universal predictive power , And " A wise man " instead of " A fool " fight . Although wealth may represent some form of competence and expertise , But given other forms of relative expertise, predictions may be more reliable . A participant who has lost a bet in a particular field , There may be more accurate beliefs in another field . however , Forecasting the market has an unfortunate result , That is to inspire the belief of those who are easy to gamble , This makes those who win the bet rich , Make the rest poor , And make those who are unwilling to take risks unwilling to participate generally .

There are better ways to inspire people's beliefs . Studies have shown that , Although predicting market performance is usually better than simple voting , But they are no better than complex team prediction voting , under these circumstances , People have incentives to share and discuss information . In team negotiation mode , Members can be weighted according to factors such as past performance and peer evaluation , The team participates in semi-structured discussions , To collect information that cannot be simply encapsulated in the sales contract . Such a team negotiation model can be further improved with the quadratic rule , To get accurate probability estimates from all participants ( Compared with the forecast market , Forecasting the market only gets up and down views on the current price balance ). Have proved , The number of contracts people are motivated to buy reflects their subjective probability . The number of contracts bought reflects their subjective probability assessment . Such a market can also distribute the benefits of participation more equally . Reward the right person without bankrupting others , So that everyone can become a participant in the next round . Reward accuracy without bankrupting others , So that everyone can become a participant in the next few rounds .

SBTs Can open up a new class of rich models , Experiments were carried out in terms of prediction ability and relative professional knowledge . The forecast market gives a number -- The price of the contract , The second vote gives each participant's exact belief in the probability of an event .SBTs Be able to further calculate these beliefs in a social context , Including a person's Education Certificate 、 Membership and general sociality . Participants develop better weights ( Or nonlinear synthesis ) prediction model , Probably in the new 、 Expert forecasters emerge at unforeseen intersections . therefore , Even if opinion polls don't summarize beliefs well , It is also possible to conduct a retrospective study of public opinion polls , To discover " More right " Characteristics of participants , And call more targeted in future opinion polls " Experts ", Perhaps in the context of a review group . These mechanisms are closely related to the mechanisms we advocate in this paper . Again , The quadratic mechanism converted by relevant scores can transform poorly coordinated top-down public goods into strong public goods . Again , They can also transform the governance system based on zero sum prediction market into positive and multiple perception mechanisms , Because the zero sum forecast market encourages participants to hide their information ( for example Futarchy). Decision making , So as to encourage the disclosure and synthesis of new and better information .

5.2 From artificial intelligence to multiple intelligences

Large scale nonlinearity " neural network " Model ( Such as BERT and GPT-3) It can also be done through SBT convert . from SBTs To transform . Such models can collect a large amount of public or private monitoring data , To produce rich models and predictions . Rich models and predictions , Such as code based on natural language prompts . Most monitored data creators are unaware of their role in creating these models , No residual rights are reserved , And is regarded as " Incidental ", Not key players . Besides , Data collection separates models from their social context , This masks their prejudices and limitations , And make them regarded as " Accidental " Not key players . This masks their prejudices and limitations , It weakens our ability to compensate for them . These tensions have increased with the demand for data availability , These contradictions have also become increasingly prominent ," Data table of data set " And other new initiatives record the source of the data . Data table of data set " Wait for new initiatives to record the source of the data , And the privacy protection method of machine learning , These contradictions have become increasingly prominent . Such methods need to give meaningful economic and management benefits to those who generate data , And motivate them to work together to produce data . Encourage them to work together to produce stronger models than they built alone .

SBT Provides a natural way , Develop economic incentives for data from rich sources , At the same time, give the data creator the residual governance right of its data . especially ,SBTs Allow data on individuals and communities ( And data quality ) Conduct careful and targeted incentives based on their characteristics . meanwhile , Model makers can track the characteristics of the collected data and their social background -- This is the impact on them . meanwhile , The modeler can track SBT Reflect the collected data and its social background , And find the limitations of contributors who can eliminate bias and compensate for limitations .SBTs It can also provide customized management rights for data creators , Allow them to form cooperative organizations , Collect data and negotiate the use of . This bottom-up programmability of data creators makes the future of multiple intelligences possible . The future of multiple intelligences , Model makers can negotiate through competition to build different models using the same data . therefore , We got rid of an independent single " Artistic Intelligence " The pattern is free from human origin , A pattern of hoarding surveillance data from nowhere , And became an explosive growth in the Cambrian period , That is, the cooperative multi-agent . Instead, it is a cooperative multi intelligence , These social roots are rooted in intelligence , And managed by the soul .

as time goes on , just as SBT Individualize the soul , They also individualize the model -- Source the data 、 Management and economic rights are directly embedded in the code of the model . therefore , Multiple agents are like humans -- Build a soul embedded in human sociality . Or it depends on how you look at it , Humans over time , Embedded in multi-agent evolution . Everyone has a unique soul , Complement and cooperate with other souls . At this point , We see the convergence of the forecasting market and the AI paradigm , Towards pluralistic perception , Combined with widely distributed incentives and careful tracking of the social environment , Create a variety of models , Combine the advantages of the two methods , Form a more powerful technology paradigm than any other method , More powerful than any one .

5.3 Programmable multiple privacy

Multi-agent raises important questions about data privacy . After all , To build such a powerful database, we need to start from a large data set ( Such as health data ) Collect data from different individuals in , Or capture non human but shared data ( Like social graph ). Not between people , It's shared ( for example , Social graph )." Self sovereignty identity " Advocates of tend to treat data as private property : The data about this interaction is mine , So I should be able to choose when and to whom to disclose these data . However , Even compared with the real economy , The data economy is also difficult to understand in terms of simple private property . A simple understanding of private property . In a simple two-way relationship , For example, illegal aviation , The right to disclose information is usually symmetrical , It usually requires mutual permission and consent . Just like scholars Helen Nissenbaum emphasize , People are not concerned about " privacy " In itself , But the lack of integrity of the background when sharing information . Integrity of information . The Cambridge analytics scandal is largely about the nature of people revealing their social maps and information about their friends , Without involving themselves . The Cambridge analytics scandal is mainly about people revealing their social maps and friends without their consent .

Privacy is not so much a transferable property right , Rather, the more promising approach is to treat privacy as a programmable 、 Loosely coupled rights binding , allow access to 、 Change or profit from information . The right to information . In this mode , every last SBT-- For example, representing a certificate or accessing a data store SBT-- It's best to have an implicit programmable property right , The specified pair constitutes SBT Access to basic information . constitute SBT Basic information of : holder 、 The agreement between them 、 Share property ( Such as data ). property ( Such as data ), And obligations to third parties . for example , Some publishers will choose to SBTs Completely open . some SBTs, Such as passport or health record , It will be privacy in the sense of self sovereignty , carry SBT Your soul has the right to unilateral disclosure . Other , Such as reflecting the membership of data cooperation organization SBTs, There will be multiple signatures or more complex community voting rights . under these circumstances , All or most SBT The holder must agree to disclose .

Although there are some technical problems (SBTs Can you program in this way ? Around the important issue of incentive compatibility ( In the 7 Further discussion of )-- But we still believe that programmable multiple privacy deserves further study , And has key advantages over other models .

According to our method ,SBT It is possible to make privacy a programmable 、 Composable rights , That is, it can be mapped to the complex set of expectations and agreements we have today . Besides , This programmability can help us re imagine a new aspect of all beings . privacy -- As a right to access information -- It can be done with "usus"、"abusus " and "fructus " form , To create a subtle combination of acquisition rights , There are an infinite number of ways . for example ,SBTs Can allow the calculation of data storage -- Perhaps owned and managed by multiple souls -- Use a special privacy protection technology . some SBTs You can even allow access to data , under these circumstances , Some calculations can be performed , But it can be calculated , But the result cannot prove to a third party . A simple example is voting . The voting mechanism needs to count everyone's votes , But the number of votes should not be proved to others , To prevent buying tickets .

Communication is perhaps the most typical form of shared data . However , Today's communication channels lack user control and management ("usus " and "abusus"), At the same time, the user's attention ("fructus") Auction to the highest bidder , Even robots .SBTs Has the potential to manage a healthier attention economy " In the form of , Enable souls to get spam from possible robots outside their social map . Their social graph , At the same time, improve communication from real communities and required intersections . The audience can know more clearly who they are listening to , And better allocate credit to works that inspire insight . Inspire insight . Instead of optimizing, maximize participation , Such an economy can be optimized for positive cooperation and valuable co creation . Such communication channels are also important for safety . As mentioned above ," High bandwidth " Communication channels are essential to establish a safe foundation for community recovery .

6 Decentralized society

Web3 Hope to transform society widely , Not just the financial system . However , Today's social structure -- family 、 church 、 The team 、 company 、 Civil society 、 celebrity 、 democracy -- In the virtual world ( Often referred to as " Meta space ") Is meaningless in . If there are no primitives representing the human soul and the wider relationship , virtual world ( Often referred to as " Meta universe ") It doesn't make sense . If web3 Abandoned a lasting identity , Their trust and cooperation model , And their combined rights and authorities , We will see , Sinbil attack 、 Collusion and a limited and fully transferable private property sector of the economy -- All these are the trend of super Finance .

To avoid super financialization , But it can release exponential growth , We propose to enhance and bridge our sociality in virtual and physical reality , Empower souls and communities to encode rich social and economic relationships . however , Just building trust and cooperation is not enough . Correct bias and excessive coordination in trust networks ( Or collusion ) Tendencies , Encouragement is more complicated than ever 、 More diverse social relationships are essential . We call this " Decentralized society (DeSoc)": A jointly determined sociality , The bottom-up community and the bottom-up community , As an emerging attribute of each other , Produce diversified online goods on different scales .

We emphasize that multi network goods are DESOC A feature of , Because the Internet is the most powerful engine of economic growth , But it is also most vulnerable to private actors ( Such as web2) And other institutions ( Like NASA ) damage . The engine of economic growth , But it is most vulnerable to private actors ( Such as web2) And powerful governments capture... In a mystical way . Most of the significant economic growth comes from more and more Internet returns , Every additional unit of input will produce more and more output . Examples of simple physical networks include roads 、 Power grid 、 Cities and other forms of infrastructure . A network of labor and other capital inputs . Examples of powerful digital networks include the market . Prediction model and data-based multiple intelligences . In both cases , Network economics is different from neoclassical economics , The latter pays attention to diminishing returns -- Every additional unit of investment , Output will decline , And private property will produce the most effective results . Private property , Applied to the case of increasing returns , It will have the opposite effect -- Curb network growth by squeezing rent . The road between two cities can release more and more returns from trade gains . But the same path , If the rent that the owner chooses to extract reaches the transaction value , Then the path of private ownership will stifle growth and value . Public ownership of the Internet also has its own dangers , Vulnerable to regulatory control or inadequate funding .

If the network is not regarded as a pure public product or a pure private product , But as a partial and diversified shared product , that , A network with increasing revenue is the most effective . Pure personal belongings , But as part and multiple shared items , A network with increasing revenue is the most effective .DeSoc It provides a social base for the separation and reorganization of rights -- Right to use ("usus")、 The right to consume or destroy ("abusus") And the right to ("fructus"), And establish an effective governance mechanism between these rights , To enhance trust and cooperation , Check both collusion and capture . We have discussed several mechanisms in this article, and we have discussed several mechanisms in this article , Such as community-based SALSA And the fourth power fund converted by the relevant score ( And voting ). This third way of partial and multiple ownership avoids the private rent-seeking calubdis (Charybdis) And Sheila of public regulation (Scylla).

in many ways , Today's DeFi Is a private property paradigm with diminishing returns , And trace it back to networks that increase returns . Based on distrust ,DeFi Essentially limited to fully transferable private property ( Such as transferable pass ) field . Fully transferable private property ( Such as transferable pass ), Mainly is to "usus"、"abusus " and "fructus". In the best of circumstances ,DeFi It is possible to squeeze rent to curb the development of the network , In the worst case , It is possible that " Whale " Dominant Utopian monitoring monopoly , these " Whale " Will collect and hoard data . Whale " The dominant mystic surveillance monopoly , They compete in collecting and hoarding data -- It's like web2.com equally .

DeSoc take DeFi The competition for control and speculation of network value is transformed into bottom-up coordination to establish 、 Participate in and manage them . At least ,DeSoc The bottom of society can make DeFi It is insect resistant ( Achieve community governance )、 Anti Vampire ( Internalize positive externalities , To build an open source network ) And anti serialization ( Maintain community governance ). Build an open source network ), And anti collusion ( Keep the network decentralized ). With DeSoc Structural amendments to ,DeFi Can support and expand plural networks , Give it benefits, not further consolidate the network controlled by narrow interests .

However ,DeSoc Its biggest advantage lies in the composability of its network . The return of sustained growth and the growth of the network are not just to avoid the risk of squeezing rent , It is also to encourage the proliferation and crossover of nested networks . A highway may form a network between two cities . however , From broader cooperation, more extensive cooperation , The two cooperating cities will eventually encounter the upper limit of diminishing returns , Because it's crowded ( Roads and housing ) Or dry up ( Reach the limit of the people they can serve ). Only through technological innovation and more and more extensive cooperation , Even the cooperation of relatively loose adjacent networks , A new source of growing returns , Value can continue to grow exponentially . Some cooperation will be tangible , Gradually expand cross space physical trade . But more connections will be information and digital . as time goes on , We will see a new cooperation matrix between physical and digital networks . Rely on and expand the social interconnection they build . This cross 、 Partially nested 、 Growing network collaboration across the digital and physical worlds , It is DeSoc Contributed to .

Through networking and coordination ,DeSoc At the intersection of politics and markets . The intersection of markets -- Strengthen both with sociality .DeSoc Enhanced JCR Licklider Vision -- He founded the Internet ARPANET The founder of . He is ARPANET The founder of , The network created the Internet --" Man machine symbiosis " Of " Intergalactic computer network ". In a " Intergalactic computer network " Medium " Man machine symbiosis ", On the basis of trust, it has greatly increased social vitality . Rather than DeFi Is built on the premise of no trust ,DeSoc Code the trust network that supports today's real economy , And enable us to use them to produce a response to capture 、 Extract or dominate flexible multi network goods . With this enhanced sociality ,web3 You can give up short-term super financialization , And choose an unlimited 、 The future of returns across social distances .

6.1 The soul can go to heaven ...... Or go to hell

Although we have selectively emphasized what we think is promising DaSoc The potential released , But it's important to remember , Almost any technology with this potential for change will have similar characteristics . It's important to remember , Almost any technology with this potential for change will have a similar potential for disruptive change . The potential for destructive transformation : Fire burns , Wheel rolling , TV brainwashing , Car pollution , Credit cards trap debt , And so on . ad locum , alike SBTs Can be used to make up for here , alike SBTs It can be used to compensate the motivation within the group and realize cross regional cooperation , It can also be used to automatically red line unpopular social groups , It can even be used to red line unpopular social groups . Unpopular social groups , Even target them for cyber or physical attacks , Implement restrictive immigration policies , Or provide predatory loans . In the current web3 In ecosystem , Many of these possibilities are not prominent , Because on the current basis , They are not meaningful concepts . Enable DeSoc The advantages of can also cause these injuries . Just as the disadvantage of having a heart is that the heart can be broken , The downside of having a soul is that it can go to hell , The disadvantage of owning a society is that society is often hated 、 prejudice 、 Driven by violence and fear . Human nature is a great 、 Often tragic experiments .

When we think DeSoc Possible Utopia , We should also put these possibilities in the context of other technical utopias . In other technology driven utopias .Web2 It's an opaque structure of authoritarian surveillance and social control . although web2 Often rely on top-down artistic bureaucracy to grant identity (" A driver's license "), But it's an opaque structure . and DeSoc Rely on the horizontal (" Point to point ") Social proof of . and DeSoc Given souls to code their own relationships and jointly create multiple properties , and web2 Then take social connection as the intermediary or monetize it with opaque algorithm , These algorithms may divide people 、 Split and mislead .DeSoc Avoid the top-down 、 Opaque social credit system .Web2 They form the basis .DeSoc Treat the soul as an agent , and web2 Treat the soul as an object

Without any basis of identity ,DeFi The risk of social control is small , At least in the short term . but DeFi Has its own Utopia . although DeFi Overcome the clear form of centralization -- That is, specific actors have a super level of formal power in a system -- But it has no built-in way to overcome the implicit centralization of power through collusion and market forces . Monopolies are not always what they used to be " Standard oil " That's what happened . Collusion can occur even higher and farther in ecosystems , At a higher level of an ecosystem . We saw this today , The rise of a class of institutional asset management companies ( for example ,anguard、BlackRock、State Street、Fidelity etc. ) The rise of , They are the largest shareholders of all large banks . Airline company 、 Largest shareholder in automotive companies and other major industries . Since such asset management companies hold shares in all competitors in an industry ( For example, holding shares in every major airline ), Their motivation is to make the company they own look like a competitive industry , But acting like a monopolist , Maximize the profits of the whole industry and consolidate their position at the expense of consumers and the public .

stay DeFi in , alike " Whale " And venture capitalists have accumulated larger shares at every level of the stack , And among competitors in the stack . Accumulate a larger share among competitors in a stack , Maybe vote in pass management , Or entrust it to a client at the same level , They have a similar correlation across the network . If there is no social matrix to resist forced functional decentralization and related discounts , We should also expect to see more whale funded monopolies , Because monopolists are increasingly becoming the largest available investment capital . With " Money class " Differences with users , We should see ( And have seen ) More and more incentives are misplaced and rent is squeezed . If there is a problem with processing private data DeFi application , We are likely to see similar developments , For example, applications encourage multiple " Have " Bidding between people with data , These people " Have " It's actually the data of interpersonal relationships ( For example, their social graph ), To establish a single private AI To compete with humans , Avoid future competition to enhance human multiple artificial intelligence .

therefore ,DeSoc There is no need to pass the acceptable non Utopian test perfectly ; To become a paradigm worth exploring , It just needs to be better than existing alternatives . To become a paradigm worth exploring , It just needs to be better than the existing alternatives . although DeSoc There may be a utopian scenario that needs to be prevented , but web2 And existing DeFi The utopian model is inevitable , Concentrate power on the elite who determine social outcomes or have most power . Inevitably , Power is concentrated in the elite who determine social outcomes or have most of the wealth .web2 The direction is decisive autocracy , It accelerates the ability of top-down monitoring and behavior manipulation . The ability to monitor and manipulate behavior . Today's DeFi The direction is nominally anarchic capitalism , But it has fallen into the pressure of network effect and monopoly , The medium-term path may become autocratic in the same way .

On the contrary ,DeSoc It's random social pluralism -- A network of individuals and communities , As each other's burst properties , Decide your future together . throughout web2, It can put DESOC Its development is compared to the rise of participatory government from centuries of monarchy . Monarchy , Participatory government does not inevitably produce democracy ; It also led to the rise of communism and fascism . similarly ,SBTs Did not make digital infrastructure inherently democratic , But Democratic compatibility depends on what the soul and the community decide together . Opening up this possibility space is right web2 Authoritarianism and DeFi The obvious improvement of anarchic capitalism .

7 Implementation challenges

Privacy pair DeSoc Is a key challenge for . One side , Too many public SBTs May reveal too much information about the soul , Make them vulnerable to social control . On the other hand , Too much pure private SBTs It may also lead to avoiding the relevance discount of governance and social coordination through private communication channels —— This raises an important issue of incentive compatibility . Closely related to the issue of privacy is the issue of deception : Souls may distort their social unity , At the same time, coordinate through private or auxiliary channels . We cannot long to know all the possibilities and answers , But to explore the nature of the challenge here , And outline some promising paths for future research .

7.1 Private soul

Blockchain based systems are public by default . Any relationship recorded on the chain is not only for participants , And immediately visible to anyone in the world . Using multiple pseudonyms can preserve some privacy : Family soul 、 Medical soul 、 Professional soul 、 Political soul , Each carries a different SBT. But if the user operates naively , It's easy to connect these souls . The consequences of this lack of privacy are serious . in fact , If no clear measures are taken to protect privacy , Simply put all SBTs Chained “ naive ” The vision is likely to make many applications expose too much information .

In response to excessive publicity , There are many solutions with different levels of technical complexity and functionality . The easiest way is SBT Data can be stored under the chain , Leave only the hash value of the data on the chain .


The choice of how to store data under the chain is up to the individual ; Possible solutions include

(i) Their own equipment ;

(ii) Cloud services they trust ;

or (iii) Decentralized networks , For example, interstellar file system (IPFS).

Store the data under the chain so that we can continue to own it SBTs Write permission of smart contract of data , But also have separate permission to read the data . Bob You can choose to reveal any of his... Only when he wants to SBTs( Or the data storage they allow ) The content of . This has taken us a long way , And it has further benefits of improving technology scalability , Because most data only needs to be processed by a very small number of parties . But we should fully realize the attributes such as multiple privacy , And more granular forms of disclosure , We need to go further . Fortunately, , Many encryption technologies enable us to do this .

A powerful tool can partially reveal data in new ways , It is a branch of cryptography , be called “ Proof of zero knowledge ”. Although zero knowledge proof is most commonly used today to protect privacy in asset transfers , But they also allow people to prove arbitrary statements , Without disclosing any more information than the statement itself . for example , In a world where government documents and other certificates can be proved by password , Someone can prove such a statement :“ I am a Canadian citizen , Over the age of 18 year , Have a university degree in economics and more than 50,000 name Twitter Concern , also Who hasn't applied for an account in this system yet .”

Zero knowledge proof can pass SBT Calculations to prove the characteristics of the soul ( for example , It has certain Membership ). This technology can be realized by introducing multi-party computing technology ( For example, garbled circuit ) Further expansion , This makes such tests doubly private : The certifier will not reveal to the verifier who they are , And the verifier will not disclose their verification mechanism to the verifier . contrary , Both parties shall calculate together , You can only get the output .

Another powerful technique is to designate a verifier to prove . in general ,“ data ” Having the characteristic of being slippery : If I send you a movie , I can't technically prevent you from recording and sending it to a third party . Digital rights management (DRM) The effectiveness of such alternatives is limited at best , And it usually brings huge costs to users . However , Prove not to be slippery in the same way . If Amma Would like to Bob Some proof of her SBT Properties of X, She can treat “ I hold the attribute of satisfaction X Of SBTs, Or I have Bob The soul's access key ” This statement makes a zero knowledge proof . Bob Will find this statement convincing : He knew he didn't prove it , therefore Amma In fact, there must be a satisfying nature X Of SBT. But if Bob Pass the proof to Triffin , Triffin won't be persuaded : As far as he knows , Bob Can prove with his own key .

This can be done through a verifiable delay function (VDF) Become stronger :Amma Can make and display what can only be used at present SBT Proof of production , But anyone else can make it in five minutes . This means that although it is impossible to the original data itself ( Maybe it's just a simple copy and paste ) Have the same type of selective permissions , However, it can represent the access right of trusted proof of relevant data . For all that , This may take us a long way . Just as blockchain provides traceability in transactions to prevent someone from right clicking, copying and pasting valuable NFT( And the witch attacks the original owner ) equally ,SBTs Can provide traceability in social communication , This can at least reduce replication through unauthenticated sources - The value of pasting .

The focus of these examples is not to accurately illustrate how to use encryption technology to solve the problem SBT All privacy and data licensing issues . contrary , It outlines several examples to demonstrate the power of these technologies . An important future research direction is to determine the exact limitations of different types of data licenses and the specific combination of technologies that are best suited to achieve the required license level . Another question is what kind of data management system is needed , And how to split access correctly (“usus”)、 edit (“abusus”) And access to cash flow (“fructus”) right .

7.2 The soul of cheating

If SBT Is a variety of property 、 The social foundation on which network goods and intelligence coordinate , People may worry that souls will try to deceive or deceive them into entering the community to get our imagination SBTs Permitted governance or property rights . for example , If many applications rely on the presence of delegates SBT, Unethical meetings may provide such SBTs In exchange for a bribe . With enough bribes , human beings ( And robots ) It can generate a false social map , Make the account look like a real human soul , And be ( fake )SBTs Fully distinguish . It's like DAO Can be bribed ,Souls And the chain voting mechanism they use can also . contrary , If SBTs Used to reduce coordination , The soul may avoid SBTs To maximize its impact . Why should we believe what the soul has SBTs It accurately reflects their real social commitment , Not just how they choose to play the game ?

One argument is , Different motives for cheating may “ Balance ”. Souls may be classified and self identified on an appropriate scale into networks that are important to them , Just like how the haberger tax balances incentives for overvalued and undervalued assets to arrive at a roughly accurate market valuation . The soul will want to hold more SBTs To gain influence in their communities , But on the other hand , They avoid people in communities they don't care about SBTs, In order to get a low score in the correlation index , And increase their influence in broader network governance .

however , If you assume these two incentives —— Gain access and maximize influence —— Always offset evenly , Even close to offsetting , It's like magic , That would be naive . There may be many communities using SBTs Outside the system to control access and Governance . Or the community may —— Contrary to our main assumptions about openness —— Distribute private SBTs To reflect governance , But entice community members to think about these... In broader decision-making SBTs A secret .

“ cheat ” The problem should not be underestimated . This is an important question , Solving it is one of the most important focuses of future research . in fact , This is one of the main reasons why it is very challenging to open source many existing algorithms that give priority or screening to human users . In order to alleviate and prevent SBTs Fraud in , We suggest several directions for the specification and encryption :

  • SBT Our ecosystem can lead to “ thick ” Community channels , In these channels ,SBT Through strong social ties and repeated interaction, it shows the true identity of community members under the chain . This will make it easier for the community to filter and revoke impersonators and robots SBT. Such dense channels —— We often go to church 、 The workplace 、 School 、 Found in gathering groups and civil society organizations —— Will be more “ thin ” Regulatory games in social channels ( for example , Through robots 、 Bribe 、 Pretend to be ) Provide a social foundation more resistant to witch attacks .
  • Nested communities may need SBT Yes “ below ” The potential collusion vector applies context . for example , If a state is holding a round of financing or voting , The state may require each participating citizen to also hold a certain county and city SBT( state > county / City ).
  • SBT The openness and cryptological provability of the ecosystem itself can be used to actively detect collusion patterns and punish untrue behavior —— Maybe discount the voting rights of the collusive soul , Or force the soul to accept what represents negative proof SBT. for example , If one soul proves that another soul is a robot , Then the case can be upgraded and publicly verified , Cause the soul to have a lot of negative proof . This is in GitCoin QF Something has happened in the ecosystem , A series of signals are used to detect “ Conspiracy groups ”.
  • ZK technology ( for example MACI) Some proof that the soul can be prevented from making by cryptography is verifiable . This will make attempts to sell certain types of proof unreliable , Because the briber cannot judge whether the briber has complied with their transaction . There has been a lot of research on voting using this technology , But in the end, any non-financial social mechanism may eventually benefit from similar ideas .
  • We can encourage informants , To destabilize large-scale collusion . We are not detecting and punishing incorrect or bad behavior , It's about detecting and punishing bad patterns . Due to the possibility of false bribery , There is a risk of overuse of this technology , But it's still part of the toolkit .
  • We can use mechanisms from peer prediction theory to encourage honest reporting in all cases , Unless the collusion is very large . Unlike meeting proof of attendance , Participants can prove each other's presence , Therefore, the number of participants who need bribes to prove false statements has become very large . Rewards don't have to be money , It can be SBTs, This makes rewards more useful to real community members than attackers .
  • If a group of souls have a common interest , We can use correlation scores that focus on correlation . for example , The correlation scoring technique used in bounded pair secondary financing uses the secondary financing donation itself to determine the correlation between the two participants , So as to determine the discount degree of their intersection . If the two participants have many common interests , Their direction QF The motivation of the mechanism to express this fact will certainly decrease with the discount of relevance , But it will never become zero or negative .

8 Comparison and limitation

Although the scope of the proposed identity framework is almost unlimited , But in web3 There are four particularly prominent and adjacent paradigms in space that have been widely discussed , It's worth comparing : The dominant “ Tradition ” Identity ecosystem 、 Pseudonym economy 、 Proof of personality and verifiable evidence . Each paradigm highlights the important contributions and challenges of the future development of the social identity paradigm we advocate , We use these limitations as a springboard to explore the direction of the future . Whether it's through you in , We also explain why we believe that our soul and the social identity primitive of soul pass are a more promising way forward for the privacy system .

8.1 Tradition

Traditional identity systems rely on third parties ( The government 、 university 、 Employers, etc ) Documents or ID cards issued and mediated . By calling the 3 We confirm to determine the source . Although legacy systems have an interesting set of attributes that we should understand more deeply , But such a system is very inefficient , And not suitable for fast 、 Efficient and coordinated composability or calculation . Besides , These systems lack social background , Make the soul rely on a centralized third party to confirm the membership of the community , Not embedded in the community . for example , Most government issued identity documents can eventually be traced back to birth certificates authorized by doctors and family members , They are the ultimate source of truth , And many equally meaningful social connections are missing , Together, these social connections provide a stronger proof . in fact , When the center of power seeks strong recognition ( for example , Obtain security permits from major governments ) when , They rarely rely on such documents , Instead, turn to interviews on social networks . therefore , Such legacy identity systems tend to focus power on issuers and those who can conduct due diligence to obtain stronger verification , These people in turn become rigid and unreliable bureaucracies . DeSoc One of the key design objectives of is to ensure that it can meet and exceed the ID Safety requirements for , Allow horizontal networks to provide greater security for all users through a series of social foundations .

8.2 Pseudonym economy

Balaji Srinivasan It has greatly promoted the social vision based on the combination of reputation system and zero knowledge proof mechanism to protect privacy , He created and promoted “ Pseudonym economy ” The word" . His early version emphasized the use of pseudonyms to avoid discrimination and “ Cancel culture ”( Abolishing culture or calling for culture is a contemporary phrase , Used of a form of exclusion , In this form of exclusion , Someone is excluded from social or professional circles —— Whether online 、 Social media is still face-to-face . It is said that those who have been excluded have been “ Cancel ”), These thugs try to damage a person's reputation and break their social ties . It envisages people accumulating transferable zero knowledge in their wallets (ZK) prove , And avoid reputation attacks by transferring a subset of proofs to a new wallet or splitting proofs into multiple wallets , This may not be traceable . When selecting the certificate to be transplanted , A person selects the required pseudonym level in the new account , Weigh more anonymity ( Less evidence of transplantation ) Or more to their social networks ( Transplant more proof ) The trade-off between .

Typical anonymous economic proposals and DeSoc The practical difference between is , We no longer emphasize that identity separation is the main way to protect participants from abuse and the elimination of culture . Some degree of separation ( for example , family 、 Work 、 Different souls between politics, etc ) May be healthy , But in general , Relying on the ability to establish a new identity as the main means to resist attacks has great disadvantages . It makes it more difficult to bet on the reputation of loans and provenances , And it's related to trying to correct correlation or The combination of governance mechanisms for witch attacks is poor .

DeSoc Not by allowing the victim to take on a new identity ( If reduced ) Reappear in the attack to protect the victims , Instead, allow other methods , For example, contextualize the attacker . “ Cancel ” Often appear , Because when a person or robot has little social contact or background with the victim , Statements and actions are out of context and virus signals spread through non context networks . And SBTs Provide provenance to prevent deep forgery in the same way ,SBT Your map is socially drawn “ Popular works ” The origin of . “ Popular works ” It is essentially an artifact produced outside the victim's community ( Shared by SBTs Membership reflects ), Or lack of support from the victim community SBTs prove —— This should make people doubt the authenticity of the work . SBTs It also enables victims to initiate a defensive response , To counteract the blow planned and spread from their trust network ( Here is jointly held SBTs The model is represented by ). By maintaining the social background , People can maintain trust , Even if they face the threat of cancellation , And hold the attacker accountable . Improving the source can improve the social foundation of truth .

8.3 Proof of personality

Personality proof agreement (PoP) A pass designed to provide personal uniqueness , To prevent witches from attacking , While allowing non-financial applications . So , They rely on a global analysis of the social graph 、 Biometrics 、 Synchronized global key parties or some combination of them . However , because PoP The agreement seeks to represent personal identity —— Focus on achieving global uniqueness —— Not a social identity that maps relationships and solidarity , therefore PoP The agreement is limited to applications that treat everyone equally . Most of the applications we are interested in ( For example, reputation pledge ) We all hope that each user is unique 、 Different people .

Besides ,PoP The agreement is not immune from witches . In almost all recent foreseeable applications ,PoP The system may be attacked by witches , But the cost is slightly higher . Unless most people on earth are registered PoP Service and is participating in specific validation activities , Otherwise, attackers can always recruit uninterested people who have not yet participated as witches . Although such mercenaries are not entirely robots , But the difference is only superficial , Maybe it's just a little extra cost .

many PoP The agreement aims to establish the basis for building universal basic income or global democracy . Although our ambitions are different , But such agreements still prompt us to consider how to gradually build to coordinate a variety of network products . And PoP Binary of 、 Compared with the global nature of individualism , Our approach is designed for bottom-up reputation 、 Property and governance build a rich 、 Context sensitive and layered foundation , Allow participation in communities and networks of all sizes .

8.4 Verifiable Certificate

Verifiable Certificate (VC) yes W3C standard , Among them, the certificate ( Or proof ) May be made at the discretion of the holder zk share . VC Highlights the main limitations of our basic privacy paradigm , And inspired our discussion of the above privacy extension . stay SBT Before privacy expansion with reduced publicity scope ,VC and SBTss Can be seen as a natural supplement : especially ,SBTs It was initially public , Therefore, they are not applicable to sensitive information such as identity certificates issued by the government , and VC The implementation of has been trying to find a recovery paradigm , This may be solved by community recovery . In the short term , The combination of these two methods may be more powerful than either method alone . however VC There is also a key limitation : At least in their standardized form ,VC Most of the applications we listed are not supported , Because they have unilateral privacy .

In our use case , One sided zk Sharing and motivation are incompatible , Nor does it reflect our privacy norms . Most of our applications rely on some kind of publicity . But in zk-sharing Next , The soul cannot know that another soul has SBT, Unless it's shared with them —— This makes the reputation bet 、 Credible commitment 、 Anti witch governance and simple lease contracts ( For example, apartment rental ) Unable to get rid of other commitments and encumbrances that are not necessarily visible . More deeply , We suspect that unilateral sharability is regarded as the right privacy paradigm . One party in a multi-party relationship rarely has the right to disclose the relationship unilaterally without the consent of the other party . Just as unilateral transferable private property is not a rich property system , Simple unilateral shareability is not a very rich privacy system . If two parties jointly own an asset and choose to pass VC Represent their relationship , Then this kind of certificate does not allow mutual consent and mutual permission . This problem involves more complex multi property and complex organizational forms and authorities , This is a DeSoc A feature of .

9 The soul was born

From the present web3 From ecosystem to SBTs Mediated social enhancement pathways face typical cold start challenges . One side ,SBTs Non-negotiable . On the other hand , Today's wallet portfolio may not be SBTs The ultimate destination , Because they lack community recovery mechanisms . But in order for the community to recover, the wallet works , They need all kinds of... Across different communities SBTs To ensure safety . The first thing to do is :SBTs Or community recovery ? Who is the early adopter SBTs Our community ? On different chains SBTs How to interoperate ? We cannot long to know all the possibilities and answers , Instead, it outlines some promising paths for readers in the current web3 even to the extent that web2 Further exploration in the architecture .

9.1 SBTs Prototype

Even though SBT The symbol of is non transferability , but SBT There may also be another attribute that may prove more useful in its startup : Revocability . SBT It is possible to be revocable first 、 Transferable pass , Then it becomes non transferable . If the issuer can destroy the token and reissue it to a new wallet , Then the token is revocable . for example , When the key is lost or compromised , It makes sense to burn and reissue , And the issuer is interested in ensuring that the pass is not financialized and sold to one party —— let me put it another way , When the pass indicates true community membership , Employers with interaction under the repeated chain 、 The church 、 Party groups 、 The club can easily destroy and reissue the pass , Because they have something to do with people , And you can call 、 Video conferencing or simple face-to-face meetings . Single interaction , For example, attending a concert or meeting , Not very suitable. , Because community ties are weak .

Revocable 、 Transferable pass is a prototype SBT—— Provide supportive placental function before the birth of the soul . These passes buy time for wallets to nurture safe community recovery mechanisms , And let people accumulate primitive SBT, These primitive SBT It can eventually be burned and reissued as non transferable SBT. Under this path , The problem is not “ What happens first :SBT Or community recovery ?” contrary ,SBT And community recovery , Produced a soul .

9.2 Wallet community recovery

Although today's wallet lacks community resilience , But they are becoming SBT s home —— Or maybe a pregnant uterus —— Both have relative advantages and disadvantages . Proof of personality (PoP) The advantage of the agreement is that it is already trying to solve social disputes , This is the foundation of community recovery . Besides , many DAO Use PoP To promote governance , Make it natural SBT The first publisher of . However , Even though PoP Nature leads , but PoP The agreement has not yet won widespread trust to store valuable token assets , The trusteeship wallet has .

Trusteeship wallet —— Despite the centralization defect —— It may therefore provide a natural entrance for less mature and scattered users . Such hosted wallets can also build tools for the retail community , To issue a revocable pass , These passes will then be converted ( Or destroy and reissue ) by SBTs, Even more “ Enterprises ” The issuer provides tools —— Many of them are looking for web3 Methods of establishing loyal customer base in , but Lack of regulatory expertise . Once the community recovery mechanism is officially determined and tested in practice , These trusteeship wallets can be dispersed into community recovery , And the custodian continues to DeSoc Provide other valuable services in ( Such as community management 、SBTs Issue, etc. ).

For more mature web3 user , Decentralized unmanaged wallets ( Or like Argent and Loopring Such an unmanaged social recovery wallet ) It is the natural starting point for guiding the community recovery mechanism . Unmanaged wallets have native web3 The advantages of open source , And the flexibility of the pre announcement and step-by-step testing mechanism , To volunteer 、 Mature user subsets are tested for incentive and hybrid mechanisms ( for example : Multiple signatures ). All these methods (PoP、 Managed and unmanaged ) It plays an important role in testing and guiding users with different complexity and risk tolerance .

9.3 Soul archetype

Norms can also guide the existence of the soul . When we reconsider the pass and wallet , We can also redefine our view of certain categories NFT And a pass to show membership . especially , We can introduce non transferable certificates issued by reputable institutions NFT and POAP This norm , These bodies reflect the presence of 、 Work experience or education certificate . The transfer of this membership pass —— If you trade in value —— May reduce the reputation of the wallet , And may prevent the issuer from further issuing members or POAP Pass card . In an unmanaged ecosystem , A large number of users have gained significant financial reputation and stake, This can be used as effective collateral to guide them not to abuse non transferable expectations .

Although all these approaches have their own challenges , But we hope that through various methods , After step-by-step iteration , It converges to a quasi equilibrium state in the medium term .

10 Conclusion

Although we've been imagining DeSoc What can be achieved , But in many ways , The above is only the first step . Leading to DeSoc There is more than one way , Including many non blockchain based frameworks , for example Spritely、ACDC and Backchannel, They rely on local machines rather than global ledgers ( Blockchain ) Data storage . These frameworks may eventually provide greater trust across social distances , Because they can take advantage of the transitivity of trust relationships —— For example, trusted introductions —— Instead of relying on well-known highland institutions ( Such as university or DAO) released SBTs. Besides , The application we described above is just DeSoc Can enhance the ability of the beginning , Without involving the virtual world : Their physics 、 Societies and their complex intersection with the real world . All of this suggests that , Even the broad ambitions we describe above , Also only DeSoc May eventually become the beginning of .

However , On this road , There are still many challenges and outstanding issues . The above sketch requires a large number of red teams ( competitors ), Many of them are more like recommendations than full specifications . DAO How to compare carefully SBTs Soul patterns and correlations in , To protect and decentralize witch attacks while maintaining their state of propaganda ? Faced with various relevant discount schemes , get SBTs What is the incentive compatibility of ? Privacy and related discounts and other DeSoc How many conflicts are there in mechanism design ? How do we measure inequality in a social but appropriate private way ? How inheritance should work in a community recovery framework ? Is there a red line that can be drawn or even incorporated into the agreement to avoid dystopia ? Or should we race to build the best scenario first ? These issues are just the beginning of the multi-year research agenda we expect , The agenda will be linked to DeSoc The ecosystem develops together .

However ,DeSoc Its potential seems to be worth more than just paying the price for tackling these thorny challenges , And may be necessary to ensure our survival . Albert · Einstein is in 1932 It was said at the disarmament conference in ,“ People's organizational ability ” Failed to keep up with “ His technological progress ” The pace of , This makes “ One 3 The - year-old has a razor in his hand ”. In a world where his observations seem more prescient than ever , Learn how to write the future for a programmable society —— Instead of writing it on subjective trust —— It seems to be a required course for human survival on this planet .

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