source ： China social science network - China Social Science Journal
author ： Hu lele
The original title ：《“ Meta universe ” analysis 》
“ Meta universe ” yes 2021 International hot words in ,2021 It was called in “ The first year of the meta universe ”. As a new thing in the frontier scientific and technological field of mankind , At present, there is no small debate about the definition of the meta universe , Moreover, people have many different views on the development, evolution and key characteristics of its past and present life .
The debate over the concept of the meta universe
What is the universe ？ chinese “ Meta universe ” A literal translation from an English noun metaverse. Its prefix “meta-” Yes “ yuan ”“ Beyond ” The meaning of , Root “verse” Represents the universe （universe）, The combination of the two is “ Beyond the universe ”, It means meta universe . Some people translate it into “ The super universe ”“ Hyperelement field ”“ Virtual reality ”“ virtual world ” etc. .《 Oxford English dictionary 》 The web version defines the meta universe as “ A virtual reality space , Where users can interact with computer-generated environments and others ”.“ Wikipedia ” It is defined as “ Physical reality through virtual reality , It shows the characteristics of convergence and physical persistence , It is based on the future Internet and has the characteristics of connection awareness and sharing 3D Virtual space ”.
The upsurge of meta universe is rising from the industry . In global industry , There are different definitions of the metauniverse . Mark, founder of yuan company · Zuckerberg's idea of the metauniverse is a fusion of Virtual Reality Technology 、 A social platform with a strong sense of immersion built with exclusive hardware devices . Tencent believes that metauniverse is a virtual digital world independent of the real world , After entering the world, users can open a new “ Quanzhen ” life . Ma Jie, vice president of Baidu, believes that metauniverse is essentially the virtualization of the real world 、 The digital process , Need to produce content 、 The economic system 、 User experience and physical world content have been greatly transformed .
Academia also has different definitions of the meta universe . Chen Gang and Dong Haoyu, School of Journalism and communication, Peking University, believe that ,“ The yuan universe is linked and created by means of science and Technology , A virtual world that maps and interacts with the real world , Digital living space with new social system ”. Tsinghua University School of journalism , The meta universe is an idea and concept ; The meta universe is still a developing 、 The concept of evolution , Different participants continue to enrich its meaning in their own ways . The research team in Shenyang defined ,“ Yuancosmos is a new Internet application and social form integrating virtual reality produced by integrating a variety of new technologies , It provides an immersive experience based on extended reality technology , Based on digital twin technology to generate the mirror image of the real world , Build an economic system based on blockchain technology , Integrate the virtual world with the real world in the economic system 、 Social system 、 Close integration on the identity system , And allow each user to produce content and edit the world ”.
Some scholars have studied the conception and concept of the meta universe “ Archaeology ”, Trying to define it . Zuo Pengfei, Institute of quantitative economics and technical economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, from the perspective of time and space 、 Authenticity 、 independence 、 The four aspects of connectivity cross define the meta universe ： In terms of time and space , The meta universe is a virtual digital world in the space dimension and a real digital world in the time dimension ; In terms of authenticity , There are digital copies of the real world in the metauniverse , There are also virtual world creations ; In terms of Independence , The meta universe is a parallel space closely connected and highly independent of the external real world ; In terms of connectivity , The meta universe is a network 、 Hardware terminals and users are included in the sustainable 、 Wide coverage virtual reality system .
The author thinks , The meta universe is an immersive 、 Virtual 、 Invisible 、 tremendous 、 Perpetual 、 Evolving 、 Throughout the year 24 Hours of online artificial electronic space . Its essence , The meta universe is a virtual mapping version of the human real world —— People in the real world can break the boundaries of time and space , Live in it as a digital avatar and never go offline , So you can get a perfect immersive experience beyond reality . We can define the meta universe as ： One that will people through a variety of high technologies 、 Internet 、 mobile communication 、 Associated with specialized equipment, etc , Born out of 、 Parallel to the 、 An artificial online virtual world independent of the real world . In which the , Regardless of identity 、 sensory organs 、 Personal attributes such as ideology , Or the social system 、 economic structure 、 Social attributes such as political organization , Can be presented . People have their own virtual identity in it , Socialize 、 Interaction 、 life 、 Work, etc. , Get and create what you want . and , The virtual world of the meta universe is orderly —— It has a set of operating rules （ ethic 、 moral 、 standard 、 The rules 、 law 、 The system 、 Civilization, etc ）, Not disorderly , Not to mention depravity 、 corrupt 、 The dark , Even anti human .
The evolution of the meta universe
The idea of the universe 、 idea 、 Concept 、 Technology and so on are not 2021 Suddenly appeared in , It is 70 Over the years, with human imagination 、 Research and development 、 Practice has gradually emerged and developed .
Some researchers think , The metauniverse can be traced back to American mathematicians 、 Norbert, the founder of cybernetics · Wiener 1948 Published in 《 cybernetics ： Or the science of control and communication in animals and machines 》. Other researchers believe that ,1974 Literary works published in the United States in 、 Later adapted into the game 《 Dragon and dungeon 》 It is the earliest beginning of what we call the meta universe today .
At present, the globally recognized source of metacosmic thought is American mathematician 、 Computer expert and cyberpunk science fiction writer verno · Wenqi . He was in 1979 Completed in 、1981 A novel published in 《 Real name surname 》 in , Creatively conceived a plan through “ Brain-machine interface ” Enter the virtual world where you can get sensory experience . therefore , He is the ancestor of the meta universe . When the novel was published , Internet technology is just beginning to emerge . then , American writer William · Gibson 1984 Science fiction completed in 《 Neurowanderer 》, It has further promoted mankind's conception of the meta universe . He created in the book “ Cyberspace ”（ and “ cyberspace ”）.
1991 year , Cyberspace gave birth to “ Mirror World ” The concept of technology , That is, every real scene in the real world can be projected into a manually programmed computer program through computer software , And let users interact with the mirror world through the computer monitor . is , Yale University David · Galent published 《 Mirror World ： Or the day software puts the universe in a shoebox …… How this will happen , What will it mean 》. The name of this book is actually the meta universe .
however ,“metaverse” The word first appeared in American science fiction writer Neil · Stephenson 1992 A science fiction novel depicting a huge virtual reality world published in 《 An avalanche 》 in . Stephenson sublimated Vinci's wonderful idea , Propose the prototype of the meta universe —— A cyberspace parallel to the real world .“ Put on headphones and eyeglasses , Find the connection terminal , It can be simulated by computer through virtual separation 、 A virtual space parallel to the real world .”
Academic circles have also debated the stages of the development of the meta universe . University of science and technology of China 、 Hong Kong University of science and technology 、 Korean Academy of science and technology 、 University College London, UK 、 A collaborative study by the University of Helsinki in Finland believes that , Up to now , The development of the yuan universe is roughly divided into five stages ： Literary stage （1984 Years and before ）、 Text based interactive game stage （1985—1992）、 Virtual worlds and massively multiplayer online games （1993—2011）、 Immersive virtual environment on smart phones and wearable devices （2012—2017）、 The new era of the meta universe （2017 So far this year ）. Shenyang divides the development of meta universe into pseudo meta universe 、 Quasi meta universe 、 Low configuration version meta universe 、 High configuration version meta universe 、 The five stages of the ultimate metauniverse .
Identification of the characteristics of the yuan universe
What are the key features of the metauniverse ？ Scholars at home and abroad have different perceptions and opinions .
U.S. meta universe analyst Matthew · Bauer believes that the meta universe should be sustainable 、 The real time 、 No access restrictions 、 Economic function 、 Connectivity 、 Six characteristics of creativity . Zuo Pengfei believes that the basic characteristics of the meta universe include immersive experience （ Low latency and realism give users an immersive sensory experience ）、 Virtualization separation （ Real world users will have one or more... In the digital world ID identity ）、 Open creation （ Users enter the digital world through terminals , Massive resources can be used to carry out creative activities ）、 Strong social attributes （ The real social relationship chain will be transferred and reorganized in the digital world ）、 Stabilization system （ With security 、 Stable 、 An orderly virtual economic and social system ）. Chen Gang and Dong Haoyu sorted out and defined the five characteristics and attributes of the meta universe （START）： Social and spatial attributes , The transcendence and extension of scientific and technological empowerment , people 、 Machine and artificial intelligence create , Realism and reality mapping , Trading and circulation .
Besides , A research report points out that , The basic elements of the meta universe include user identity and relationships 、 immersion 、 Real time and full-time 、 Diversification and economic system , The ultimate form of the meta universe needs to fully meet five characteristics —— Virtual identity （ Every person in the real world will have one or more metauniverses ID, And be responsible for it ）、 social connections （ Each meta universe ID There will be realistic real-life social relationships ）、 Extreme presence （ Low latency and immersion ensure that people in the real world have a sufficient sense of presence ）、 Extreme openness （ People in the real world can enter... Anywhere and at any time , After entering, you can enjoy a large amount of content ）、 A complete economic and legal system （ The security and stability of the whole meta universe , Continue the civilization derived from the meta universe ）.
The author thinks , David, founder of Robles · There are at least eight key features and elements of the meta universe described by baszouchi, which are more accurate . We can combine them into two categories —— Immersion in technology 、 Low latency 、 Anytime, anywhere 、 Rich diversity , Social virtual identity 、 Virtual friends 、 fictitious economy 、 Virtual civilization .
Metauniverse is based on high technology , These high technologies include augmented reality 、 Virtual reality 、 Mixed reality 、 Expanding reality 、 User interaction （ human-computer interaction ）、 Computer vision 、 Artificial intelligence 、 The three dimensional 、 cloud 、 big data 、 Blockchain 、 Number twin 、 Edge and cloud computing 、5G/6G etc. . and , There are also many infrastructure and equipment corresponding to these high technologies , Including the popular Internet 、 High speed optical fiber and mobile communication equipment 、 Giant servers , And cheap wearable devices . therefore , Metauniverse is inseparable from the strong support of high technology .
at present , There are various controversies in the meta universe . These disputes give us a further understanding of 、 understand 、 Accept 、 reflection 、 The study of the metauniverse provides an important ideological basis . By arguing , We will eventually understand the concept of the meta universe 、 Evolution and characteristics form a general consensus .
（ Author's unit ： School of Marxism, Xi'an University of Electronic Science and technology ）