PANews 2022-04-05 17:32:12 阅读数:12
The head of the public chain The etheric fang Of “ Every move ” Are concerned by the whole encryption circle , Ethereum upgrade is naturally one of the most concerned topics . Ethereum plans to 2022 In the second quarter of the year “ Merge ”, That is, it is realized by PoW（ Proof of workload ） to turn to PoS（ Proof of interest ）, The transformation of this consensus mechanism has also become a hot topic in recent discussions .
PANews After studying Ethereum's official website, I found that , Ethereum upgrade roadmap has been changed , At the same time, some related terms have also been adjusted , At present, many articles still cite the old information before , This will mislead users , According to the latest roadmap, this article will introduce in detail the technical solution of Ethereum upgrading to solve the current dilemma 、 The significance of this merger and upgrading and the related contents of future upgrading .
Before understanding the details of Ethereum upgrade , Let's briefly review why Ethereum should be upgraded . Ethereum's vision is to ensure De centralization Under the premise of , It has better scalability and security , To better serve existing and potential users , At the same time, it supports sustainable development . But at present, Ethereum is facing network congestion 、 The threshold of running nodes is getting higher and higher 、PoW Many difficulties such as energy loss caused by mechanism , A series of upgrades are designed to solve these problems , from 2014 Since, Ethereum upgrade has become an active field of research and development .
as everyone knows , To solve the problem of public chain performance “ Security 、 Decentralization and scalability ” These three dilemmas , Must make certain sacrifices in design , For example, some solutions that claim to be high-performance public chains sacrifice decentralization , Once the licensed nodes have problems, it will cause network downtime . The Ethereum team developed the following technical solutions to overcome the difficulties ：
To be specific , The fragmentation chain will reduce the workload of node verifiers , And support Ethereum to create multiple blocks at the same time , To improve the scalability of Ethereum . The beacon chain will randomly assign verifiers to different fragment chains , The probability of doing evil is low , The security of Ethereum network is guaranteed .PoS The mechanism can effectively reduce the threshold of operating nodes , Support more ordinary users to become node verifiers , To maximize decentralization .
The latest roadmap
Through the coordinated operation of different solutions , In theory, Ethereum upgrade can ensure decentralization at the same time 、 Scalability and security . After understanding the technical scheme , Let's take a look at the latest roadmap of Ethereum upgrade and the current progress .
As can be seen from the latest road map , The main node of Ethereum upgrade is the beacon chain online 、 Merge and fragment chain online , At present, the beacon chain has been in 2020 Online at the end of the year , What we are talking about is the recent upgrade “ Merge ”. Different from the old road map , The initial plan was to deal with the fragmentation chain before merging to solve Capacity expansion problem , The new roadmap will advance the merger and upgrade to before capacity expansion . The main reason for this change is Layer2 technology （ The second tier solution ） Rapid development of , In especial rollups, This provides another way for Ethereum team to solve scalability problems . take rollups As a safe and feasible expansion mode of Ethereum, the research has proved to have broad prospects , At the same time, it will take several years for the fragment chain to go online , Difficult and uncertain , So the priority has shifted to achieving... Through consolidation PoW turn PoS.
In addition to road map changes , Some terms have also been adjusted , Before ETH1（ Existing workload proof chain ） and ETH2（ Proof of interest chain that originally planned to move users and applications to ） The term has been deprecated , from 2021 Since the end , Core developers have stopped using these terms , In new terms “ Executive ” and “ Consensus layer ” Instead of . Therefore, after the merger, the existing Ethereum main network will be regarded as a network with the functions of executing transactions and Intelligent contract Functional fragment chain “Shard 0”, Will not be abandoned , Applications and users will not migrate to the new proof of interest chain .
The meaning of the merger
this PoW turn PoS The merger and upgrade of , It only involves the change of consensus mechanism , The scalability of Ethereum network still needs to rely on Layer2 Technology or slice chain online to solve . therefore , This merger and upgrade will not reduce the high cost of Ethereum main network Gas fee , This problem requires fragment chain and Layer2 The combination of technology can effectively solve , That is, the transaction process is executed on the cheap layer 2 agreement , The final state （ Transaction database ） Storage In the fragment chain .
About PoW and PoS Comparison of , There are a lot of information in the industry , No more details here . This article will talk about why the beacon chain should adopt... In combination with the vision of Ethereum and the technical solutions involved in the upgrade PoS Mechanism .
1） Support fragment chain online . The security of the fragment chain will affect the whole Ethereum network , So only when security is effectively guaranteed , To gradually go online , This merger and upgrade is just to prepare for the final fragment chain launch . The verifier of the fragment chain will be randomly assigned by the beacon chain , Because it's random , Therefore, it is difficult for verifiers in a fragment chain to conspire to do evil , According to the Ethereum team , The probability of doing evil is less than one trillion , The safety of the fragment chain is guaranteed .
This protection mechanism of the fragment chain , Only the beacon chain is PoS Only by consensus can we achieve ,PoW Consensus cannot be achieved .PoW By consensus , As long as the miner Calculate the force strong , Anyone can be a miner , So the agreement can't control the miners . No control , You can't randomly assign , And the miners have autonomy , Collusion can choose to do evil to the same fragment chain , The safety of natural fragment chain cannot be guaranteed .PoS By consensus , The precondition of becoming a verifier is pledge 32 gold ETH, Through this access threshold , The protocol can control the verifier , Generally speaking, it's “ If you don't obey my arrangement, you quit ”. Because you have control over the verifier , So the protocol can randomly assign verifiers to the fragment chain , Ensure safety through randomness .
2） Reduce the node threshold to achieve decentralization .PoW Under the mechanism , The threshold to become a verification node is high , Need professional miner and other hardware equipment , With the development of Ethereum ecology and the renewal of mining machinery , Ordinary users are more difficult to enter , At present BTC The current situation of miners . use PoS Mechanism , Ethereum can effectively reduce the entry threshold of authentication nodes , Any user only needs to pledge 32 gold ETH You can join the verifier team . The verifier's job includes creating new blocks （ The miners' ）, And check the new block （ Not a miner ）, Is randomly assigned by the beacon chain , You don't need to compete , The requirements for hardware equipment are greatly reduced , Support more users to participate . The more nodes participating in the verification , Ethereum is also more decentralized and decentralized , It will be safer in the face of attack .
3） Support sustainable development .PoW Need to consume power resources , At present, the power supply itself is insufficient , For example, in recent years, there has been industrial power rationing in China , At the same time, at present, power generation mainly depends on thermal power , Not very friendly to the environment , Environmentally friendly hydropower 、 Solar power 、 Wind power generation has not become the main force . In the context of global carbon reduction and environmental protection , Choose one that does not consume any energy PoS The mechanism is more in line with the vision of sustainable development of Ethereum network .
Future upgrades —— Shard chain
Block partitioning is the process of dividing the database horizontally to disperse the load , Ethereum is committed to alleviating network congestion and increasing transaction processing volume per second through fragment chain technology . Popular speaking , Slicing is equivalent to disassembling a task into multiple , Each small task can be performed simultaneously , This can effectively improve the speed of completing the task . Besides , If there are many members in the organization , After a task is divided into multiple people , Some people are free , Then the organization can send other tasks to the rest of the people , Achieve multi task synchronization , Therefore, the fragment chain supports Ethereum to create multiple blocks at the same time . Through task disassembly and multi task synchronization , The fragment chain has become a key link in the expansion of Ethereum , Through and with rollups Combination of Technology , Can make the Ethereum network TPS reach 10 All around .
In addition to ascending Ethereum TPS Outside , The fragmentation chain also contributes to its decentralization . The verifier of the existing Ethereum main network needs to store and run the data of the whole network , And after slicing , Verifiers only need to manage the data on the fragment chain they are responsible for verifying , This not only speeds up validation , It also reduces the demand for hardware equipment , Let more users become authentication nodes , According to the official website, after splitting, individuals will eventually run Ethereum on their laptops or mobile phones .
About the final version of the future of the fragment chain , At present, there is no unified conclusion in the community . One is that the fragment chain is only used as the data layer , Only provide additional data to the network , No ability to process transactions or intelligence contract The function of , Therefore, after the upgrade, only the existing Ethereum main network is used as the executive layer . The other is that part of the fragment chain becomes intelligent , Smart contracts and transactions can be executed like the current Ethereum main network , The community is still debating this , Of course, we can reconsider the relevant decisions of the fragmentation chain in the future .
from 2021 The public chain war in , By this year, the hot discussion of Multi Chain coexistence , as well as Layer2 The future of Technology , The discussion on infrastructure public chain has always been a hot topic in the circle . Ethereum is the most mature public chain in the encryption industry , Its status is unspeakable , Whether the upgrading can be effectively realized will have a certain impact on the whole industry . The new public chain, which focuses on high performance and rises （ Such as Solana、Avalanche etc. ）, How to deal with the future upgrading of Ethereum , At that time, what changes will take place in the whole public chain pattern ？ future PANews We will also continue to pay attention to the upgrade of Ethereum , Welcome to download APP, Follow the author and continue to follow .