osc_ y8ifc29r 2022-04-05 11:50:27 阅读数:443


Ethereum Foundation

Turing's complete foundation : Ethereum virtual machine EVM, Be similar to JVM

Basic concepts :

node : Read and write blockchain
The miners : adopt hash The network node that generates the workload
dig : The way to issue ether money
Account : Can send transaction
External accounts : Public private key pair control , The address is determined by the public key
Contract account : Determine when deploying the contract , Stored code , The contract code will be executed after receiving the legal transaction
Gas: Limit the amount of work required to execute transactions , Pay for the execution of the transaction
EVM: The operating environment of smart contract , It's a sandbox , No network 、 File or execute other processes
Intelligent contract : A collection of code and data , The address specified by Ethereum blockchain
transaction : Transactions are marked by state transitions , The state consists of the object called account and the transfer value and information state transition between two accounts
External accounts and contract accounts are represented by the same data structure under Ethereum , As shown in the figure below . It contains Balance、Nonce、CodeHash and StorageRoot Four properties ,Balance Is the etheric balance in the account ;Nonce Is the count of transactions sent by the account , Used to prevent replay attacks ; When accounts are applied to smart contracts ,CodeHash Is the hash value of the contract code ,StorageRoot It is the of contract status data Merkle Patricia The root .

Ethereum deals include To、Value、Nonce、gasPrice、gasLimit、Data And Signature Seven attributes of transaction signature .To Is the recipient's account address ,Value Is the etheric amount of the transfer ,Nonce Is the sender's count of this transaction ,gasPrice At the time of the transaction Gas The unit price in ether ,gasLimit Is the maximum consumption allowed to execute the exchange Gas amount ,Data Is the message data when calling the smart contract , Transaction signature is the sender's signature of the transaction ECDSA Signature .

Ethereum core principles :

Consensus mechanism
Compile the contract module : To the underlying Solc The compiler encapsulates , Provide RPC Interface to external services , Compile smart contracts
ledger modular : Update and modify the account system
EVM Perform module : Parse and execute contract code
data storage :Merkle Patricia tree
encryption algorithm :hash Algorithm SHA256,ECC Digitally sign
Existing problems of Ethereum :

Consensus is inefficient
Lack of privacy protection
Large scale storage is difficult
Information is difficult to regulate

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