Jump crypto: detailed explanation of blockchain infrastructure subdivision track and territory

Chain catcher 2022-04-05 01:47:36 阅读数:479

jump crypto detailed explanation blockchain

author :Rahul Maganti/Jump Crypto partner ,Rahul Maganti/Jump Crypto Vice President,

The original title :《Peeking Under the Hood: Key Pillars of Crypto Infrastructure

compile : Zeyi , Linqi , Chain catcher

brief introduction

With the cross chain bridge 、 The rapid emergence of new frameworks and other core encryption protocols , Effective planning of blockchain infrastructure is still the user's responsibility 、 Key challenges for developers and investors .“ Blockchain infrastructure ” The term can cover a variety of products and services , From the underlying network stack to the consensus model or virtual machine . We reserve the right to constitute L1/L2 All kinds of chain “ The core ” Components for further analysis , For later release ( Stay tuned !). In this article , Our specific goal is :

  • Provide a broad overview of key components of blockchain infrastructure .
  • Break down these components into clear 、 Digestible sub parts .
  • Infrastructure map

We define the ecosystem around blockchain infrastructure as a system designed to support the following key areas L1 and L2 Protocol developed :

  • 0 Tier infrastructure :(1) Decentralized cloud services ( Storage 、 Calculation 、 Indexes );(2) Node infrastructure (RPC、 pledge / Validator )
  • middleware :(1) Data availability ;(2) signal communication / Message transfer protocol
  • Blockchain development :(1) Safety and testing ;(2) Developer tools ( Out of the box tools 、 front end / Back end Libraries 、 Language /IDE).


The first 0 Tier infrastructure

Decentralized cloud services

Cloud service is right Web2 The development of —— As the computing and data requirements of applications grow , Service providers that specialize in providing these data and calculations quickly and cost effectively are essential .Web3 Applications have similar requirements for data and Computing , But I hope to be loyal to the spirit of blockchain . therefore , Designed to create these Web2 A decentralized version of the service protocol has emerged . Decentralized clouds are 3 Core parts :

  • Storage  - data / Files are stored on servers run by many entities . Because data is copied or striped on multiple machines , These networks can achieve a high degree of fault tolerance .
  • Calculation -- Just like storage , Calculated at Web2 The paradigm is centralized . Decentralized computing focuses on the distribution of this computing on many nodes , To achieve higher fault tolerance ( If one or a group of nodes fails , The network can still serve requests , Minimal interference to performance ).
  • Indexes -- stay Web2 In the world , Data has been stored on one or a group of servers owned and operated by an entity , It's relatively easy to query these data . Because blockchain nodes are distributed , The data may be isolated , Scattered in different areas , And often under incompatible standards . The indexing protocol aggregates this data , It also provides an easy-to-use and standardized API To access this data .

Several projects provide storage 、 Calculation and indexing (Aleph and Akash The Internet ), Other projects are more professional ( for example ,The Graph Used to index ,Arweave / Filecoin Used to store ).

Node infrastructure

Remote procedure call (RPC) It is the core of many types of software system functions . They allow one program to call or access a program on another computer . This is particularly useful for blockchains , Blockchain must serve a large number of incoming requests from various machines running in different regions and environments .Alchemy、Syndica and Infura Such agreements provide such infrastructure as services , Enable builders to focus on advanced application development , Rather than the underlying mechanisms involved in transmitting and routing calls to nodes .

And many RPC Same provider ,Alchemy Own and operate all nodes . For many in the crypto community , Centralization RPC The danger is obvious —— It introduces a single point of failure , It may endanger the activity of blockchain ( namely , If Alchemy Failure , The application will not be able to retrieve or access data on the blockchain ). lately , image Pocket Such decentralization RPC The agreement has grown , To solve these problems , However, the effectiveness of this method still needs to be tested on a large scale .

pledge / Validator —— The security of blockchain depends on a group of distributed nodes to verify the transactions on the chain , But someone must actually run the nodes involved in the consensus . in many instances , Time required to run the node 、 Cost and energy are prohibitive , Causes many nodes to choose to exit , Instead, it relies on other nodes to assume the responsibility of ensuring chain security .

However , This attitude poses serious problems —— If everyone decides to transfer security to others , No one will verify .P2P and Blockdaemon And other service operation infrastructure , Allow less mature or inadequately capitalized users to participate in consensus , Usually by pooling capital . Some people think , These pledge providers introduce unnecessary concentration , But the alternative could be worse —— In the absence of such providers , For ordinary network participants , The entry barrier of operation node is too high , May lead to higher concentration .


Data availability

Applications consume a lot of data . stay Web2 In the example , These data usually come directly from users or third-party providers in a centralized manner ( Data providers are paid directly for aggregating and selling data to specific companies and Applications —— Like Amazon 、 Google or other machine learning data providers ).

DApp It is also a large number of consumers of data , But a verifier is needed to make this data available to users or applications running on the chain . To minimize trust assumptions , It's important to provide this data in a decentralized way . Applications can access high fidelity data quickly and efficiently in two main ways :

Pyth and Chainlink The data Oracle provides access to the data stream , This allows the encrypted network to access traditional systems and other external information in a reliable and decentralized manner . This includes high-quality financial data ( Asset prices ). This service will DeFi Extend to transactions 、 To loan 、 Sports betting 、 Extensive use cases in insurance and many other areas are crucial .

The data availability layer is a chain dedicated to sorting transactions and making data available to the chain it supports . Usually , By using a small part of the block , They will generate evidence , Provide customers with high probability confirmation that all block data has been released on the chain . Data availability proves to be a guarantee Rollup Sequencer reliability and reduction Rollup The key to transaction costs .Celestia This is a good example of this layer .


Communication and messaging

With Layer1 And the increase in the number of ecosystems , The demand for cross chain management composability and interoperability is more urgent . Cross chain bridges enable originally isolated ecosystems to interact in a meaningful way , This is similar to new trade routes that help connect different regions , It has ushered in a new era of knowledge sharing !Wormhole、Layer Zero Support common messaging with other cross chain bridge solutions , Allow all types of data and information ( Including arrest ) Move across multiple ecosystems , The application can even make arbitrary function calls across the chain , Enable them to enter other communities , Without having to deploy elsewhere .Synpase、CELER And other agreements are limited to the cross chain transfer of assets or tokens .

On chain messaging remains a key component of blockchain infrastructure . With DApp Growth in development and retail demand , The ability of protocols to interact with their users in a meaningful but decentralized manner will be a key driver of growth . Here are a few potential areas where messaging on the chain can be useful :

  • Token collection notice .
  • Allow built-in communication messaging in the wallet .
  • Notice of important updates to the agreement .
  • Track notifications of key issues ( for example ,DeFi Application risk metrics 、 Security vulnerabilities ).

Some notable projects to develop communication protocols on the chain include Dialect、 Ethernet push notification service (EPNS) and XMTP.

Blockchain development

Security and testing

The security and testing of encryption technology is still in the primary underdeveloped stage , But there's no denying it , It is critical to the success of the entire ecosystem . Encrypted applications are particularly sensitive to security risks , Because they are usually directly related to user assets . Small mistakes in its design or implementation often lead to serious economic consequences .

Yes 7 There are two main safety and testing methods :

  • unit testing It is the core part of most software system test suites . Developers write tests to check the behavior of small atomic parts of the program . There are a variety of practical unit testing frameworks . For example, on Ethereum Waffle and Truffle,Solana The standard is Anchor The test framework .
  • Integration testing Test various software modules as a group . Because libraries and advanced drivers usually interact with each other in various ways , And the interaction between other low-level modules ( for example , One typescript The library interacts with a set of underlying smart contracts ). Testing the flow of data and information between these modules is crucial .
  • Audit It has become the core part of blockchain security process development . Before releasing smart contracts to the public , Protocols usually use third-party code auditors to check and verify each line of code . We attach great importance to auditors to ensure the highest level of safety .Trail of Bits、Open Zeppelin and Quantstamp They are several trustworthy institutions in the field of blockchain audit .
  • Formal verification Involves checking whether a program or software component satisfies a set of properties . Usually , Someone will write a formal specification , Specify the behavior of the program . The formal validation framework will transform this specification into a set of constraints , Then solve and check it . One of the leading projects to enhance the security of smart contracts .Certora It's a leading project , It USES Runtime Verification To implement formal verification to support the security of smart contracts .
  • simulation — For a long time , Quantitative trading companies have been using agent-based simulation to back test the algorithmic trading strategy . Given the high cost of experimenting in blockchain , The simulation method provides a way to parameterize the protocol and test various assumptions . among ,Chaos Labs and Guantlet There are two ways to use scene based simulation , To protect the blockchain and the high-quality platform of the protocol .
  • Vulnerability bounty It helps to take advantage of the decentralized spirit in the field of encryption to solve large-scale security challenges . High bonuses encourage community members and hackers to report and solve key vulnerabilities . therefore , The bounty plan will be “ Grey hat ” become “ amateur ” Has played a unique role . for example Wormhole Create a bounty platform Immunefi Provides value up to 1000 A $10000 loophole reward ! We encourage anyone to participate !
  • Test network Provide a presentation form similar to the main network , Support developers to test and debug their parameters in the R & D environment . Many test networks use Proof-of-Authority/ Other consensus mechanisms and a small number of verifiers optimize the speed , And testing tokens on the Internet has no real value . therefore , Except through the faucet , There is no other way for users to get tokens . There are many test networks to imitate the main network L1 Built for some projects on ( Like Ethereum Rinkeby、Kovan、Ropsten).

Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages , Of course, they are not mutually exclusive , Different test styles are usually used in different stages of project development :

  • The first 1 Stage : Write unit tests when building contracts .
  • The first 2 Stage : Once a higher level of program abstraction is built , Integration testing is very important for the interaction between test modules .
  • The first 3 Stage : Code audit in test network / When publishing on the main network or large-scale functions .
  • The first 4 Stage : Formal verification is usually combined with code audit , And use additional security guarantees . Once the program is specified , The rest of the process can be automated , This makes it easy to communicate with Continuous Integration or Continuous Deployment Tool pairing .
  • The first 5 Stage : Start the application on the test network and check the throughput 、 Flow and other extended parameters .
  • The first 6 Stage : After deploying to the main network, start the vulnerability reward plan , Use community resources to find and fix problems .


Developer Tools

The growth of any technology or ecosystem depends on the success of its developers — This is especially true in the field of encryption . We divide developer tools into four main categories :

  • Out of the box tools
  • Used to develop new products L1 Of SDK, It helps to abstract out the process of creating and deploying consensus models . Pre built modules allow flexibility and customization , However, it is optimized for development speed and standardization .Cosmos SDK This is a good example , It supports the Cosmos Rapid development of new and proven blockchains within the ecosystem .Binance Chain and Terra In order to Cosmos A famous example of a public chain based on .
  • Smart contract development —- There are many tools that can help developers quickly develop smart contracts . for example ,Truffle boxes Contains simple and useful Solidity contract ( Vote, etc ) Example . The community can also recommend appendices to this repository .
  • front end / Back end tools — There are many tools to simplify application development . Connect the application to the chain ( namely ,ethers.js、web3.js etc. ).
  • Upgrade and interact with contracts ( for example OpenZeppelin SDK)— There are different tools specific to ecosystems ( for example Solana Smart contract Anchor IDL,Parity Smart contract Ink), They deal with writing RPC Request handler 、 issue IDL、 from ID Generate client .
  • Language and IDE— The programming model of blockchain is usually very different from that of traditional software system . The first mock exam language used for block chaining development is to facilitate this model. . about EVM Compatibility chain ,Solidity and Vyper Heavily used . Other languages such as Rust Used extensively in Solana and Terra Such a public chain .


Blockchain infrastructure can be an overloaded and confusing term , It is often synonymous with a range of products and services , Covering everything from smart contract audit to cross chain bridge . therefore , Discussions about encryption infrastructure are either too broad and messy , Or it is too specific and targeted for ordinary readers . We hope this article finds the right balance for those who have just entered the encryption industry and those who seek a deeper Overview .

Of course , The encryption industry is changing rapidly , The protocols cited in this article are likely to be in 2 Even months 3 After months, it no longer constitutes a representative sample of the ecosystem . even so , We believe that the main goal of this paper ( Break down the infrastructure into parts that are easier to understand and understand ) It will have greater relevance in the future . However, with the evolution of blockchain infrastructure pattern , We will also ensure that we provide clear and consistent updates to our ideas .

If you have questions or comments , Please contact the (Rahul Maganti(@rahulmaganti_) and Saurabh Sharma(@zsparta). Let us know where we are wrong , Or where you disagree !). Special thanks Nikhil Suri(@nsuri_). And Lucas · Baker, (@sansgravitas), Thank him for his valuable feedback .

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