Case study of intangible cultural heritage Digitization: opportunities and problems of the combination of intangible cultural heritage and VR / AR

The heart of the meta universe 2022-04-03 23:38:00 阅读数:516

case study intangible cultural heritage

2019 year 4 month 15 A fire in the sun , Burned down Notre Dame de Paris , It also burned the hearts of many people . This towering Gothic building , Through the French Revolution , Witnessed the Second World War , It looks invincible , It seems that it will always stand majestically on the Bank of the Seine . Too many people can't believe , Such a cultural landmark was destroyed by a fire , People can't help sighing “ Good things in the world are not firm , The clouds are easy to disperse, the glaze is crisp ”.

chart : Notre Dame fire in Paris

The fire burned the ground and precipitated in every brick 、 Heavy history on every beam , The damaged land is not reproducible 、 Human cultural heritage that cannot be reborn —— This fire has sounded the alarm for all mankind to protect cultural heritage . How to use modern means to better protect the existing cultural heritage ? Compared with tangible material cultural heritage , How to protect intangible Intangible Cultural Heritage ? How to integrate traditional culture into the present ? These questions haunt you for a long time .

In recent years , The domestic heat in the protection and inheritance of cultural heritage is rising , Especially in intangible cultural heritage . The government has strengthened the protection of intangible cultural heritage in terms of policies , There are also many cultural works and games with intangible cultural heritage elements in the cultural and entertainment market . Documentary produced by CCTV 《 inherit 》 Tells the story of 35 Wonderful skills and life stories of an intangible cultural heritage inheritor , Reproduce the skills that are on the verge of being lost , Good reputation . Last year's hot national style sound tour 《 Nishan shaman 》 It also contains intangible cultural heritage elements with thick ink and heavy color , Its story background is derived from Manchu intangible cultural heritage Folk Literature 《 Biography of Nishan shaman 》, The picture style combines non heritage elements such as paper cutting and shadow play , The precious intangible cultural heritage of the Manchu nationality was transmitted in a modern and silent way .

chart :《 Nishan shaman 》 Screenshot of game screen

Whether it's high reputation 《 inherit 》 Or the sound tour of the fire 《 Nishan shaman 》, Both can be regarded as the perfect combination of intangible cultural heritage culture and modern means of communication . The popularity of both points to such a fact : Intangible cultural heritage is not lack of appreciation , It is just a lack of public awareness and access to intangible cultural heritage 、 The way of telling stories that make the intangible cultural heritage culture glow again 、 Methods and media .

With 5G The dawn of time ,VR/AR And other digital technologies may bring us unlimited possibilities , It is very likely to shoulder this heavy responsibility .


When VR/AR Hit Intangible Cultural Heritage

Why do you say VR/AR And other digital technologies may become the media to undertake this great task ?

First , The protection and inheritance of intangible cultural heritage is special . Director of the National Center for research and protection of intangible cultural heritage of the Chinese Academy of Arts 、 Tian Qing, an expert on intangible cultural heritage, describes the characteristics of intangible cultural heritage as follows :

“‘ China ’ There are three ways for human beings to inherit civilization : Material culture 、 The literature 、 Intangible culture , Among them, intangible cultural heritage is probably the most difficult to capture 、 The most difficult to keep 、 The most difficult to restore . Material culture , Like bronze 、 Architecture, etc , It can be buried or stand for thousands of years 、 To fail ; Written literature , Ancient have “ Silk Bao 800 , A thousand years of paper life ” The said , At present, the earliest paper documents found in China belong to the period of Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties , Not to mention Qin Jian 、 Oracle . Not material culture , It is impossible to use concrete 、 Stored in a static physical carrier . Intangible cultural heritage is not static sculpture , More like flowing music , It's procedural 、 Fleeting .”

Compared with tangible material cultural heritage , Intangible intangible cultural heritage is difficult to find a suitable way of protection and inheritance . at present , China's intangible cultural heritage work faces the following difficulties :

(1) The number of inheritors is insufficient ( Facing inheritance and dating 、 The danger of a lack of successors ). As the intangible cultural heritage, the ecological environment is deteriorating , Different from the fixed material cultural heritage , The core and most valuable resource of intangible cultural heritage lies in the inheritor , Many inheritors are old , The number of inheritors is decreasing , There are few successors to inherit the skills they have mastered , Many intangible cultural heritages are in danger of extinction . At present, the aging of intangible cultural heritage inheritors is serious , At the same time, under the influence of the rapid development of modern industry , Many people in the younger generation do not have a deep understanding of Intangible Cultural Heritage , Lack of cultural identity , Think that the sense of self-achievement of engaging in intangible cultural heritage is insufficient , The willingness to enter the intangible cultural heritage industry is relatively low .

(2) The form of communication needs to be improved . Most of the intangible cultural heritage protection work in China still stays in photography 、 interview 、 Tell orally 、 In the form of physical collection . These means of protection have indeed preserved a large number of precious intangible cultural heritage materials , But over time , Damaged physical data 、 Old photos and abstract oral records cannot fully shoulder the responsibility of protection and inheritance .

(3) The publicity content lacks depth . At present, many intangible cultural heritage publicity activities only stay at the formal level , The content lacks depth and connotation . Sometimes it's just a rough introduction , Lack of participation from listeners or tourists , The last impression is not deep , Did not really achieve the purpose of protection and inheritance ; Sometimes , Intangible cultural heritage projects have become a gimmick of business marketing , However, whether its goods are properly combined with intangible cultural heritage content is rarely considered by merchants .

(4) Learning and innovation of inheriting people . The inheritor of intangible cultural heritage is the same as everyone , All have the right to learn new knowledge . It's not because you're an inheritor that you don't need to learn , What's more, if you undertake the obligation of inheritance, you must give up the right to learn new knowledge . Although the reality is that many inheritors have a low level of Education , But with the progress of the times , The structure of inheriting people is also undergoing profound changes . In the near future , The inheritance of many intangible cultural heritage projects in China will be mainly undertaken by people with academic education . Many inheritors do not want to be exposed to new knowledge and information , But no conditional contact ; Not unwilling to improve the materials 、 Improve your skills , But don't know where to find better materials , Learn better skills .

(5) Digital protection and inheritance are not balanced . at present , There are many intangible cultural heritage works in developed areas, and digital technology has been adopted , However, many intangible cultural heritage projects in remote areas are ignored , Many intangible cultural heritage inheritors are not aware of the need to publicize and protect through modern means , Finally fell into “ Few people know —— Difficult to inherit —— Fewer people know ” The vicious circle of .

chart : Chinese traditional intangible cultural heritage techniques —— Embroidery

secondly , Although these problems are VR/AR Technology cannot solve all , but VR/AR The unique advantages of technology make it stand out , It is a high-quality choice combined with intangible cultural heritage :

firstly ,VR/AR The unique audio-visual feast can create a virtual world with a strong sense of reality , Bring the audience into the world of Intangible Cultural Heritage , New forms can also attract a large number of young people , Arouse more people's desire to understand Intangible Cultural Heritage , Promote the inheritance of intangible cultural heritage ;

second , be based on VR/AR The content created by technology can be diversified in form , It can be audio 、 video 、 game 、 Immersive experience, etc , Able to adapt to the needs and tastes of different people , So that the public can have in-depth contact with intangible cultural heritage projects from many aspects when intangible cultural heritage is protected ;

third ,VR/AR The unique interactivity of technology improves the participation of the public . The unreachable intangible cultural heritage has become a cultural product within reach , In the past, only across the screen 、 What you know through books , Now you can experience it yourself . In the process of interaction , The subjective initiative of the audience has been mobilized .

Its 4 , With 5G The advent of the times and the strong support of the state for Virtual Reality Technology ,VR/AR Technology will usher in considerable development .2013 year 12 month 30 Japan , During the 12th collective study of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee :“ Forbidden cultural relics should be collected in the Forbidden Palace 、 Heritage displayed on the vast land 、 Words written in ancient books are alive .”

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