Shan Jinxiao 2022-04-03 20:08:27 阅读数:226
author ： China Merchants Group Digital Center Shanjinxiao
Statement ： The article only represents the author's personal opinion , Not related to any organization or company
Blockchain is a distributed network data management technology , It uses cryptography and distributed consensus protocol to ensure the security of network transmission and access , And realize multi-party maintenance of data 、 Cross validation 、 The whole network is consistent and not easy to tamper with . Blockchain makes trust economy possible , It also creates a new computing paradigm and cooperation mode of low-cost trust building in an untrusted competitive environment , It is accelerating the construction of a new generation of value network and contract society , It has gradually become the general trust foundation in the era of digital economy . At this stage , Blockchain is breaking away from “ Currency circle ” Towards industry , From emptiness to reality , And gradually enter the mature stage of Engineering Development , Blockchain applications are extending to the vertical field , Small incision application to large-scale transformation , The integration of blockchain and real economy is accelerated , Application boundaries are expanding ,“ Blockchain +” It is becoming a symbol of industrial digital transformation . Besides , The establishment of accompanying data as an important factor of production , And the promotion of the marketization of data elements , The reliable and safe circulation of data assets has become an urgent problem for the big data industry , A combination of blockchain and privacy computing , It provides us with technical paths and solutions to realize data value sharing without data exchange , It realizes the balance between Value Mining and privacy protection in the process of data sharing , It is gradually becoming an era of marketization of data elements , Infrastructure services for reliable and safe data circulation .
As a rising cutting-edge technology , Although blockchain and privacy computing and their related supporting services are still in continuous iteration and development , And related industrial applications have not yet achieved large-scale popularization , However, the potential and strategic significance of blockchain and privacy computing in the future digital economy era , It also makes every digital transformation enterprise unable to stay out . however , For most traditional enterprises , How to solve the problem from the practical point of view , Better understand blockchain and privacy computing and the underlying logic behind them , Looking to the future Web3 And the next generation Internet represented by the meta universe , Build a trust infrastructure for trusted and safe flow of data in stages according to policies , Before officially entering the future era of digital economy , An urgent problem . In this paper , We will conduct in-depth analysis of industrial blockchain and privacy computing and the logic behind them , At the same time, analyze the current new economic system based on blockchain , And try to give the strategy and path of blockchain and privacy computing in traditional enterprise applications .
1、 Overview of the connotation of industrial blockchain and privacy computing
1.1 The concept and connotation of industrial blockchain
Blockchain is composed of distributed data storage 、 Point to point transmission 、 Consensus mechanism 、 Encryption algorithm and other traditional computer technologies constitute a new application mode or multi technology application complex , Not to solve a particular kind of problem 、 New revolutionary technology to improve production efficiency , It has a decentralized 、 To trust 、 Collective maintenance and reliable database , The core value of blockchain is to improve the efficiency of multi center cooperation , Including going to an intermediary 、 Enhance multi-party trust 、 Data cannot be tampered with 、 Traceability 、 Auditable, etc . Although the current blockchain technology is still immature and developing continuously , However, blockchain, as a new computing paradigm and collaboration model for low-cost trust building in an untrusted competitive environment , With its unique trust building mechanism and free cooperation mechanism across the world , It is changing the application scenarios and operation rules of many industries , It's the future development of digital economy 、 One of the indispensable technologies to build a new trust system , Therefore, it has attracted great attention from countries and industries all over the world . In a narrow sense , Blockchain is a specific data structure that links data blocks in chronological order , And adopt cryptography technology to ensure that block data can not be forged and tampered with, and decentralize the shared account book ; Broadly speaking , Blockchain verifies and stores data through an encrypted chain structure 、 Using distributed consistency algorithm to generate and update data 、 A decentralized infrastructure and distributed computing paradigm that uses smart contracts to program and manipulate data . From the perspective of data storage , Blockchain is a distributed database that can hardly be tampered with , such “ Distributed ” It is not only reflected in the distributed storage of data , It is also reflected in the distributed recording of data , It can generate a set of record time sequence 、 No tampering 、 Trusted database , The database is stored in a decentralized manner , Security is guaranteed by mathematical algorithm and cryptography .
Blockchain originated from bitcoin , It is the core foundation and underlying technology of bitcoin . Blockchain is also generally considered to be the successor to mainframe 、 Personal computer 、 Internet 、 The fifth disruptive innovation of the post mobile Internet computing paradigm , Its decentralization and mutual trust mechanism , It is expected to reshape the form of human social activities after the Internet . meanwhile , Blockchain technology is also the second blood credit in the evolutionary history of human credit 、 Precious metal credit 、 The fourth milestone after the central bank's paper money credit , It is a new infrastructure for building social trust , It is expected to move human society from the current information internet to the era of value Internet . Blockchain initially 、 The most successful application is bitcoin （ Blockchain 1.0）, Subsequently, it was widely accepted and applied in the field of digital currency and finance （ Blockchain 2.0）, At this stage, the blockchain is breaking away from “ Currency circle ”, Start to serve Logistics 、 Supply chain 、 existing evidence 、 Tracing to the source 、 Digital content and other industrial fields （ Blockchain 3.0）.
Although it has entered the blockchain 3.0 Stage （ Industrial blockchain ）, However, the introduction and explanation of blockchain in the industry are still based on concepts and imagination , More focus on the future of blockchain and the Utopia it depicts , Articles such as what blockchain can do and what blockchain can be in the future abound , However, it is rare to introduce how the industrial blockchain should be done and implemented . therefore , For traditional enterprises at this stage , To realize the value application and business innovation of blockchain , At least three aspects of rational cognition are needed ： First, blockchain has the potential to change the current situation of social and economic operation , There is no doubt about its future potential , However, the blockchain technology at this stage is very immature , Is going through the stage of getting rid of emptiness to reality ; Second, blockchain is a production relationship rather than productivity , The core of blockchain is not revolutionary technology , It is a subversion of the existing world outlook and values , Don't expect a single blockchain technology to solve specific business problems , Blockchains must be used in conjunction with other technologies that represent advanced productivity 、 Integration and symbiosis ; The third is to distinguish whether the blockchain can and cannot be combined with the scene , Not all scenarios are suitable for blockchain Technology , You can't blockchain for blockchain .
1.2 The concept and connotation of privacy computing
Privacy computing refers to the premise that the data provider does not disclose the original data , A series of information technologies that analyze and calculate data , Through the separation of data ownership and data use right , Realize the integration of data in the process of circulation and integration “ Available not visible ”, Keep the data still and the value flows . Privacy computing cannot simply belong to a certain subject field , It's a combination of cryptography 、 Security hardware 、 Data Science 、 Artificial intelligence 、 Interdisciplinary technology system in many fields such as computer engineering , Including multi-party secure computing 、 Different representative technical solutions such as federal learning and trusted execution environment . In terms of application purpose , On the one hand, privacy computing can enhance the recognition of personal identity in the process of data circulation 、 Protection of user privacy and data security ; On the other hand, privacy computing also provides a new solution for data fusion application and value release . Privacy computing has received great attention and is widely accepted nowadays , It is not simply the result of the evolution of cryptography related technologies to a certain stage , But by the demand of the market 、 The evolution of Technology 、 The phenomenon caused by the comprehensive promotion of law and Policy , Especially the marketization of data elements and the promulgation of personal information protection law , It also pushes private computing to the front line of business . The cryptography technology and related concepts involved in privacy computing have appeared in the last century , However, as a systematic industry, private computing is applied to the data field later than blockchain . It is generally believed that 2019 It was the first year of the private computing industry , The concept and technology of privacy computing are in 2019 After it was popularized and recognized by the market in , stay 2020 A large-scale proof of concept and pilot deployment began in , With the introduction of a series of data protection laws and policies , The industry generally believes that private computing is the rigid demand of the future business world , So privacy computing is 2021 Full implementation of real business application scenarios in . in fact , Where there is a need for data flow and collaboration among agencies , At the same time, there are data security concerns , Then there must be scenes and demands of privacy Computing , The accompanying data is continuously mined as a factor of production , Such scenes will be everywhere . With the promotion of the marketization of data elements and the attention of countries all over the world to digital economy , Although it still takes time and distance , However, there is no doubt that privacy computing has become the just needed and imminent outbreak of the data industry .
Whether at home or abroad , The market launch of privacy computing is triggered by the substantive actions of government regulation , In the era of big data, crawlers are rampant , Personal information has been illegally abused endlessly , And has seriously threatened the society ruled by law and the safety of people's lives and property , In the Internet era, plaintext data is unregulated 、 The feast of arbitrary capture and illegal abuse has come to an end under strong supervision , Privacy computing is the solution of multi-party data compliance sharing , Pushed to the center of the stage of marketization of data elements . meanwhile , After years of efforts in academia and Industry , Including multi-party secure computing 、 Trusted execution environment 、 Mainstream technologies in the field of privacy computing, including federated learning , It has gradually reached the basic availability state . demand 、 Technology and increasingly stringent regulatory policies , Quickly push private computing to various industries led by Finance , And has had a profound impact on various industries . For the big data industry , Privacy computing will reshape the entire industry , And become the rigid demand for the legalization of data processing in the big data industry , In our country 《 Data security law 》 emphasize , The industry needs to balance data security and application development , Privacy computing will become the key technical fulcrum of the balance , On the one hand, privacy computing builds the foundation for all kinds of data privacy cooperation , Reduce the risk of data leakage 、 Eliminate the risk of diminishing value caused by plaintext data ; On the other hand, with the security of data circulation , In the past, the more sensitive data field has gradually opened up , Data element circulation and cross industry collaboration have become the norm . For the field of artificial intelligence , Privacy computing represented by federal learning can be AI Modeling provides diverse data resources , Artificial intelligence is expected to break through the data bottleneck , Start a new round of growth . Of course , For those who generate large amounts of data , And there is an urgent need for data exchange and fusion applications , Such as finance 、 Medical treatment and government affairs , Privacy computing will also have an in-depth impact .
Besides , As an east wind to boost privacy Computing , The combination of blockchain and privacy computing , A wider range of data collaboration networks can be established , It will build a trust infrastructure for data flow , The underlying operation architecture of data element marketization and digital economy is expected to be applied in the collaborative application of privacy computing and blockchain , Free flow of data 、 Share... Compliance 、 Open integration, healthy and sustainable operation . therefore , Integrated application of blockchain and privacy computing , It will be the focus of this paper , It is also the key thinking direction in the application field of data innovation in the digital transformation of traditional enterprises , Breakthroughs in this field , It is expected to solve the difficulties of internal plate coordination of traditional enterprises for many years 、 External ecology is difficult to integrate , Vertical coordination is difficult 、 The dilemma of Internet transformation in industries such as horizontal cooperation . however , We should also see rationally and objectively , Privacy computing and blockchain are new things , Restrict the computing performance of large-scale applications of private computing , The fastest time-consuming is also calculated in plaintext 3—5 times , The slowest time consumption is hundreds of times that of plaintext calculation , Although the industry is developing encryption algorithms 、 Special hardware 、 Great efforts have been made in the fields of data characteristics , But the performance of private computing is still being optimized . therefore , For traditional enterprises , For privacy computing and blockchain , Our advice is to be positive, optimistic and long-term , Long term layout , Proceed cautiously .
2、 The underlying logic behind the development of blockchain and privacy computing
2.1 The mathematical algorithm reconstructs the free cooperation tower of Babel
In the sermon of early believers , Blockchain is generally regarded as a feat of human beings to rebuild the sky tower , It comes from 《 Bible 》 The Old Testament records ：“ After the flood , God made an agreement with mankind with a rainbow , No longer use floods to destroy the earth , Since then, people all over the world speak the same language , They all have the same accent . And in order to avoid the separation of future generations , Humans began to work together , Build a tower to heaven —— Babel Tower , God found his vows in doubt , Decide to punish humans who forget the agreement , So it disrupts human language , Make people unable to communicate with each other , So the plan of Tongtian tower failed , Human beings eventually scattered things 、 Become a plate of loose sand , The prosperous and beautiful tower of Babel was abandoned halfway , Eventually collapse ”. The language , Trust does not exist , It is the main reason why human society cannot cooperate , Today's blockchain , It was after the fall of the tower of Babel , A collaborative world built on the basis of mathematical civilization , The emergence of blockchain allows mankind to see the reconstruction leading to a new world “ Babel Tower ” Hope .
The most meaningful value of blockchain , This is a new foundation of trust and cooperation based on mathematical civilization . Globally , Beyond the scope of sovereignty and cultural geographical differences , How to build mutual trust and cooperation , It has always been a difficult problem faced by human history and civilization . The truth expressed by mathematics has the power to penetrate all barriers , Therefore, it is also the most universal , Any country 、 Language 、 People with cultural backgrounds can reach a consensus in front of the truth conveyed by mathematics 、 Build trust and collaboration . And the greatness of blockchain , It is applying mathematics and algorithms to organizations and people with different identity, status and cultural background , Establish equality through algorithm 、 Go to the center 、 Efficient point-to-point communication and trust mechanism , Makes human beings unable to speak , Differences exist , But still under the coordination of mathematics and algorithm , Close collaboration . In the long history of mankind , Regardless of the religion of each country 、 How different are political and cultural beliefs , The only consensus that can be reached is mathematics as a basic science . therefore , It can be considered that mathematics is the greatest common divisor of global civilization , It is also the basis for mankind to gain the most consensus in the world . If we endorse with mathematical algorithms , All rules are based on an open and transparent mathematical algorithm , Then all people with different political and cultural backgrounds will be able to reach a consensus , Blockchain is the great realization of this idea , Blockchain makes the glory of mathematical civilization go out of the shackles of basic science , Shine on human beings in every civilized world , Build a world of boundless freedom and value cooperation and exchange for the public .
For now , The emergence of the Internet essentially solves the problem of information decentralization , But it can not realize the decentralization of value trading . With blockchain and cloud computing 、 big data 、 Cross integration of new technologies and applications such as artificial intelligence , Internet from information interconnection 、 Everyone is interconnected, and all things are interconnected, iterative and innovative , In the post industrial era, the business model of transaction contract based on trust intermediary is increasingly not suitable for the era of global digital economy “ Wide connection 、 Great collaboration ” The development demands of . And in the complex global system , We should build a global credit consensus system out of thin air , It will be extremely difficult , Because the politics of every country 、 Economic and cultural conditions vary widely , We should achieve complete mutual trust between enterprises and governments of different countries , It's almost impossible . And that also means , No matter what form of centralized credit is used for endorsement , For the value exchange between multinational companies, it will consume huge time and economic cost . Blockchain technology is trying to solve this problem , Take mathematics as the greatest common divisor , Endorse with algorithm , Realize the credit interconnection between global nodes , Blockchain technology is becoming the best way to build a global credit system , And gradually become “ Wide connection 、 Great collaboration ” Trust infrastructure in the era of digital economy .
2.2 The development of productive forces forces the relations of production to change
Blockchain uses consensus mechanism based on mathematical algorithm , Set up between machines “ trust ” The Internet , New credit creation through technical endorsement , It is the key to deliver trust and management value in the era of digital economy . The essence of blockchain is to provide trust for society , solve “ Production relations ” The underlying protocol of the problem , just as TCP/IP It is the era of traditional information internet , The underlying protocol to solve the problem of information transmission . however TCP/IP The protocol emphasizes that the information is transmitted and copied to the target address at the fastest speed , It's a network for information transmission , There are problems such as lack of trust and non-compliance of transmission content . Even though TCP/IP With the help of various advanced technologies and productivity, the protocol stack has brought great vitality and prosperity to the Internet , However, the Internet architecture system has always faced the problem of the lack of security and trust framework that cannot be solved . With the rapid development of advanced productive forces represented by Internet technology , Especially the important influence of Internet technology on digital economy , It is urgent to find a new generation of production relations needed to solve the problem of trust . The whole society urgently needs to transform the traditional information into the Internet era “ Production relations ” Upgrade to adapt to the value of the Internet era “ Production relations ”, To solve the problems of value conservation and credit in digital economy , And then solve the problem of cross entity trust required for the development of social and economic activities . That's why , Blockchain, which focuses on solving the problem of value interconnected production relations, is gradually becoming an indispensable trust infrastructure in the era of digital economy .
Understand why the information internet must be upgraded to the underlying logic behind the value Internet represented by blockchain , The answer can be found in the natural dialectics of productivity and production relations ：“ Productivity is the premise and foundation for the formation of production relations , Production relations are established to meet the requirements of the development of productive forces , It is the development form of productive forces , Its nature must adapt to the situation of productivity . What kind of productivity , What kind of production relationship will there be in the end . When the productive forces develop to a certain stage , When the original relations of production can no longer accommodate its development , Sooner or later, it will cause fundamental changes in production relations , Replace old relations of production with new ones ”. In short , The emergence and development of blockchain is after the productivity technology in the traditional information internet era has developed to a certain stage , The old relations of production have hindered the sustainable development of advanced productive forces in the era of digital economy , The most obvious manifestation of this obstacle is , The information internet can't solve “ Wide connection 、 Great collaboration ” Trust transmission and value conservation in the era of value Internet .
in fact , The bright Internet , In fact, the undercurrent is surging behind . The original intention of the Internet is to realize information sharing and fairness in a flat society , However, in Cloud Computing 、 big data 、 The Internet of things 、 Thanks to the productivity of advanced technologies such as mobile Internet and artificial intelligence , The development of the Internet is like a runaway wild horse , Many fatal defects that deviate from its original intention are constantly exposed . The original intention of the Internet is to build a network flat and fair society , However, the reality is the giant of Internet companies and the centralization of data aggregation , Giants with “ free ” The mode keeps snowballing user data , Then realize the data grabbed from the user side to build a monopoly ecosystem , Feed and cultivate all kinds of Unicorns , Master the voice of the Internet , Coerce vulnerable user groups . And then , It is the infringement and abuse of data assets , Lack of fair competition in the market , The frequent disclosure of personal privacy and the disorderly expansion of giant capital are contrary to the original intention of the Internet and the rule of law and fair society . In recent years , Data leakage and theft of several major Internet giants at home and abroad , And all rights and interests of data assets have been highly valued and discussed by people all over the world , standard 、 win-win 、 The demand that participants have their rights and interests is rising day by day , It means that the ownership and security of data assets must be solved in the second half of the Internet , There are no rules to restrict 、 Security and trust guarantees , The loss of life and property caused by personal privacy disclosure is becoming more and more serious . The unlimited copying and information leakage of the Internet has deviated from the general direction of human pursuit of life and property security , The development of the Internet has reached the time for the whole people to be vigilant and reflect .
However , Just like George · Gild is in 《 Post Google era 》 The book points out that ：“ The essence of Google era is the centralization of pyramid structure and whitewashed by advertising “ free ”, To a large extent, these are the three architecture layers in the Internet ： Security 、 trust 、 The product of missing transactions .” Security in the era of information and Internet 、 Lack of trust and transaction , In essence, it is the defect of the production relationship corresponding to the information internet , This defect is accompanied by cloud computing 、 Application of advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence , Increasingly unable to meet the needs of social development , And has become the shackle of productivity development in the era of digital economy . in fact , When the development of advanced productive forces pushes the society into the era of digital economy , It is inevitable to call for security and mutual trust 、 Value interconnection 、 The emergence of advanced production relations such as equal cooperation and credible transactions . Blockchain technology can be used for security 、 trust 、 Transactions rebuild the Internet , Build trust infrastructure , Reconstruct the information internet into a value Internet , Reshaping the original cloud 、 big data 、 The Internet of things 、 Artificial intelligence 、 Advanced production relations required for the integrated development of advanced productivity technologies such as mobile Internet , Shaping a new production relationship in the era of digital economy .
In the era of digital economy , Data is a factor of production , Productivity algorithm is , Blockchain is the production relationship . Understanding blockchain is the solution to “ Production relations ” The nature of the problem , To help us face up to and correctly use blockchain technology . Blockchain is not productivity , Can't solve the problem of improving production efficiency , Its core is to solve the relationship between people , Including the computing power of the blockchain itself 、 Algorithm 、 Data and other issues , Still need ICT Technology to implement . therefore , We should not juxtapose blockchain with technologies representing productivity such as artificial intelligence , Simple blockchain technology can not solve the demands and problems of improving quality and efficiency in the enterprise's production process . Blockchain should not even be seen as a technology application , Instead, we should integrate the technical concept of blockchain with the Internet of things 、 big data 、 Artificial intelligence 、 Deep integration or combination of technologies representing advanced productivity such as cloud computing , In order to give full play to the function and role of blockchain , We can also use blockchain to solve some of the problems and challenges we face today . Besides , Blockchain is not suitable for all business scenarios , If there is no obstacle to production relations in a business scenario , Efficiency improvement can be achieved only by putting into use productivity such as artificial intelligence , There is no need to introduce blockchain in a far fetched way . otherwise , Blockchain is likely to become a burden superimposed on the existing business system , The fact that blockchain is for blockchain .
2.3 Data circulation drives the decoupling of information and value
The great development of the Internet , For the first time in human history, renewable production factors have been introduced —— data , And the birth of data production factors , It also forces fundamental changes in the mode of production and economic activities of human society , At present, the digital economy, which is highly valued by all countries in the world, came into being under this background . Objectively , Data is the symbiotic carrier of information and value , And that's why , The inherent value of privacy and the transfer of data itself are subject to the long-term security , Can not achieve free circulation , The contradiction between data circulation and privacy security has become a gap across the digital economy all over the world . Concepts and technologies such as big data and data lake have sprung up in recent years , It only provides tools and platforms for processing and analyzing local massive data , In essence, it does not solve the problems of data circulation, exchange, integration and sharing . Throughout all sectors of society , In terms of application, the entry of cloud and data into the lake does not bring great integration of data , But will be “ data silos ” Become a new “ Data islands ”. in fact , The traditional implementation of centralized data integration and management is not ideal , Because the fundamental reason hindering the exchange and circulation of data value , It has not been across the network transmission distance between data , But the security and privacy carried by the data as the information carrier itself and the possible out of control after information sharing , Simple data centralization can not solve the problems of security and privacy , However, it realizes the transformation from remote isolation to centralized isolation of data , In short , The forced centralization of data can not solve the problem of data circulation . therefore , If the decoupling of data value and information cannot be realized by technical means , Realize the separation of data ownership and use right , Then it is impossible for us to move towards the real era of big data , The value of data as a factor of production will also be blocked . At present, what we call big data , It is mainly described by the dimension and volume of information , And even so , It is only partial 、 Relative big data , The value circulation based on big data , But it is rarely mentioned , The reason is , For a long time, there has been no practical solution in the data industry “ Data available invisible ” The scheme ensures the safe circulation of data elements .
The emergence of blockchain and privacy computing and their application in the data industry , It brings new solutions to the circulation of data production factors . Blockchain 、 The combination of emerging technologies such as privacy Computing , It provides a way to exchange data without exchange , The way to realize the value of data sharing , It better realizes the balance between Value Mining and privacy protection in the process of data sharing . Privacy Computing mainly solves the problem of data privacy protection in data sharing computing , Blockchain focuses on ensuring the full life cycle control of data , The combination of the two provides a complete set for the marketization of data elements 、 A rigorous solution . The combination of blockchain and privacy computing truly realizes the decoupling of information and value carried by data ： Blockchain makes the information carried by the data visible but the value is not available , And realize the closed-loop control of the whole process of data circulation （ Data validation 、 Go back to the source 、 Process record 、 Tamper proof, etc ）; Privacy computing makes the value of data exchangeable and information invisible , Realize the protection of security and privacy in the whole process of data circulation （ Through multi-party secure computing 、 Implementation of Federated learning and trusted execution environment “ Data does not move, but value moves ”）. To be specific , Blockchain builds a credible value Internet for data circulation , Privacy computing separates the value of data from the privacy of data itself , Only circulate and exchange the value of data on the Internet , Information that carries data privacy is still stored locally .
At this stage , Countries around the world are increasingly strict in the protection of data elements , Data right confirmation and data privacy have become unavoidable problems in the data industry . The European Union 《 General data protection regulations （GDPR）》, The United States 《 California consumer privacy act （CCPA）》, Japan 《 Personal information protection law 》 All of them carry out legislative protection for personal privacy and data in different dimensions and degrees . In our country 《 The civil code 》、《 Data security law 》、《 Network security law 》、《 Data protection law 》、《 Personal information protection law （ The draft ）》 in , All of them have stipulated the relevant standards and specifications for the legal compliance of data use in various forms . Safe data circulation has gradually become the focus of governments at all levels and the general public all over the world , And then , It must be the end of the brutal use and random sharing of data in the Internet era . therefore , The data industry urgently needs to find solutions for the safe circulation of data , The traditional data sharing means realize the socialized sharing of data value through the circulation of data itself , Due to the objective restrictions brought by privacy protection and the subjective resistance caused by difficult control after data sharing , Both make it unable to meet the current growing demand for cross entity data sharing and the demand for data circulation in the increasingly strict era of data protection . in fact , In the era of big data with multi-source, heterogeneous and safe circulation of data , We should focus more on “ The flow of data ” Transferred to the “ Circulation of data value ” On , That is to say “ Data does not move and value flows ”, Realize that the data is not circulating, but the value of the data is circulating among various subjects in the society , Blockchain and privacy computing are the best combination to achieve this goal .
Privacy computing not only ensures the security and privacy of the original data of all parties, but also , Complete the fusion calculation of multi-party data , Realize the of multi-party data “ Available not visible ”, however , Whether the data is true 、 Data sources 、 It is a difficult problem for privacy computing to confirm the right of data and whether the flow process is safe and compliant , At the same time, privacy computing also faces difficulties in mutual trust 、 Problems such as multi-party cooperation . Shaped like a work of heaven , The above disadvantages of privacy Computing , But it is the problem that blockchain is good at and to solve , Blockchain establishes trust value transmission network among participants through consensus mechanism , Realize data authenticity verification and audit through smart contract , Promote open data sharing and value collaboration among institutions through coordination and incentive mechanisms . The combination of privacy computing and blockchain , The two learn from each other , be made one , It not only realizes the security and privacy protection in the process of data circulation , It also realizes data sharing, and the whole process can be recorded 、 Verifiable 、 Traceability and auditability , This is the realization of the underlying technology that data can really open up and circulate in the era of big data , It is also to realize safe and reliable data sharing 、 Value circulation and maximizing mining data are the cornerstone of production factors , It is also the only way to move towards digital economy and marketization of data elements .
3、 Blockchain and future new economic system
3.1 Decentralized autonomous organization ——DAO
DAO（Decentralized Autonomous Organization）, That is, decentralized autonomous organizations , It's about Web3.0 Professional terms that appear frequently in the big discussion , It is also a very active topic in the blockchain field . stay DAO in , All members have common interests , There is no absolute leader , All members work together 、 Create together 、 Group decision making , Running on the blockchain 、 Tamper proof smart contracts strictly implement decisions based on collective consensus , Capture and distribute values associated with a common mission .DAO There are two core competencies , namely “ De centralization ” and “ autonomous ”, Decentralization means that the tissue form changes from traditional pyramid rigid tissue to flat liquid tissue , And then make global cooperation possible , It also means the decentralization of organizational power , The right of organization is transferred from ownership to decision-making power , Organizational rights are shared by each stakeholder ; Autonomy is DAO The core difference from many decentralized organizations ,DAO The autonomy capability in is realized based on blockchain smart contract , Including chain governance 、 Contribution judgment 、 All work processes such as fund management are coded and written into the smart contract , Smart contracts are tamper proof and “Code is law（ Code is law ）” Automatic execution in the form of , The contract defines the rules of the organization , Manage organizational funds , Once the contract is enabled on the chain , Unless a vote is passed , Otherwise, no one can modify the rules , Any behavior that violates the rules and logic of the code will fail . in fact , Any organization should maintain the status quo or move forward , All need to rely on external force or self work to resist entropy increase , Otherwise, the organization will die out due to the increase of entropy ,DAO The community is no exception , Without external intervention and central command ,DAO The community is still functioning , It lies in its collaboration system based on blockchain technology 、 Governance system and incentive system make DAO The community has endogenous self drive , This is also DAO Sent to the future Web3 And the fundamental reason for the foundation of meta cosmic organization .
From the perspective of human development , The way of organization is determined by technical means , The technical means of human transformation of the world determines the organization of human cooperation . The advent of the steam engine , For the first time, human beings are required to work with machines , As the number and complexity of machines increase , The scale of the organization is expanding , The organizational structure is becoming more and more complex , Gradually formed a pyramid like rigid organizational structure , Organizational efficiency is inversely proportional to the size of the organization , Efficiency improvement is often at the cost of increasing the cost of organization and coordination . The emergence of the Internet , Make large-scale collaboration across enterprise and national borders possible , A large number of business processes are driven by flowing data , And carry out flexible combination among enterprises , The new organizational boundary presents a network blending pattern , The internal and external boundaries of the enterprise have been further broken , Enterprise organizations are further opening up 、 Community-based , Socialized collaboration has become the mainstream organizational form , Social production efficiency has been greatly improved . however , Collaboration in the Internet age cannot solve the problem of trust , Across different faiths around the world 、 Strangers with cultural backgrounds still can't cooperate , And the Internet age , The great development of centralized platform economy , Continuously exploit and gather data production factors of the whole network , Form a data oligopoly and platform monopoly economy , It has greatly restricted the development of social organizations to the era of freedom and cooperation .DAO The rise of community , It is mankind that has entered the era of value Internet , New changes in organizational form , Through decentralization and autonomy ,DAO It is gradually becoming a new form of organization in the era of social cooperation in the future .
at present ,DAO The development of still needs to be viewed objectively , Because it is at an early stage of development , There are also many problems in the governance system . First ,DAO Decentralization in is not absolute equality , Although users with governance rights can participate in the voting when making problem decisions , But what issues need to be voted on , Still rely on project developers or a few core members of the community , Absolute decentralization and equal rights cannot be achieved . secondly , Although the flat organizational structure is DAO Improve the efficiency of information transmission , However, the governance efficiency and decision-making efficiency of the organization are not necessarily improved , Since the governance decision cannot be tampered with after being written into the smart contract , Therefore, any minor change needs a new round of full vote , This approach will inevitably affect the efficiency of organizational governance . in addition ,DAO As a new form of organization , Regulatory policies vary from region to region ,DAO The existence of the community and whether the tokens issued are legal , And when DAO When community users violate or do not comply with community rules , Is it docking with the existing laws or generating a set of laws DAO Internal violation management system , At present, there is no mature discussion and relevant conclusion . therefore , Although in DAO The decentralization movement represented by is vigorous abroad , But the domestic environment seems to lack DAO The soil of growth , Its application is mainly based on the consensus governance on the chain based on the alliance chain , independent DAO Decentralized community movement , It doesn't make much sense for most traditional enterprises , Centralization or decentralization is a relative and dynamic process , Just as democracy and centralization , More is the random response and trade-off strategy to the current environment at that time .
3.2 Nonhomogeneous tokens ——NFT
NFT（Non-Fungible Tokens）, It's a nonhomogeneous token , It is an irreplaceable and scarce digital asset , Widely regarded as the future Web3 And the economic system of the meta universe . In the blockchain community projects known all over the world ,NFT It's very popular Dapp（Decentralized Application, Decentralized applications ）.NFT stay 2021 In, there was a movement to create wealth ： Vodafone, a British telecommunications company, sent the world's first text message as NFT Form auction , The closing price 10.7 Thousands of euros ; A computer automatically generated pixel punk avatar , sell 4200 Bitcoin ; Christie's New York made a film called 《Everydays:The First 5000 Days》 Digital art of art , Final transaction price 6934.6 Thousands of dollars ; One is called 《The Merge》 Of NFT Works of art are in the form of 9180 Ten thousand us dollars transaction , Set a new record for digital art . however , For all living beings , Except for gaping , It seems that there are only numbness and ignorance , It also seems to have doubts about the existing mode of labor production and legal distribution logic in the whole world .
As a piece of code running on the blockchain ,NFT What is the value of ？ in fact ,“Non-Fungible Token” It contains two levels of value ： One level is Token, Monetized value , And all monetized values are homogeneous , For example, bitcoin 、 The etheric fang 、 dollar 、 Digital RMB and so on can be called homogeneous tokens （FT,Fungible Tokens）,FT Can be replaced and infinitely split , It is a general value carrier , Its fundamental feature is that it can be interchanged at will , At the level of monetary value ,NFT And bitcoin, etc FT There is no difference ; The other level is Non-Fungible, That is, non-homogeneous value , It represents irreplaceable 、 Things in the indivisible digital world or physical world , For example, a work of art in the digital world or a car in the physical world 、 A property, etc , It represents the source of value or the object of value . and NFT Real value , Or the difference between it and a group of homogeneous tokens , On NFT Of “Non-Fungible” characteristic . in fact , Most things in the real world are actually “Non-Fungible” Of , Human beings live in a heterogeneous physical world , But in the digital world , All content is essentially informationized into 0 and 1. For a long time , The mapping from the physical world to the digital world , At the cost of losing the uniqueness and heterogeneity of the natural basis of the material world , In the digital world, everything becomes “Fungible” Of , Endless copying and transmission take place on the Internet every day , And there's nothing people can do . in fact , This in itself is the fundamental problem of the information internet era , That is, human beings have lost “Non-Fungible” This is the basis of natural things , Blockchain based NFT Want to do , It is to protect the uniqueness and heterogeneity of everything in the digital world , Ensure that things are original in the digital world , And this is the fundamental reason why the world is colorful .
In specific applications , It can be said that NFT The core value of is digital right confirmation ,NFT With a network wide consensus 、 The decentralized mechanism marks the representation of a certain digital content “ Digital ownership ” Of “ stamp ”, Since then, the ownership of this item has the uniqueness and exclusivity of the whole network , Its corresponding uniqueness and scarcity will also follow , And permanently record 、 Cannot be erased , Only owners can replace their transactions . Of course , Right now NFT The digital assets represented do not form an exclusive possession , You just have this digital asset “ Digital ownership ”. In the digital collection , We can make the whole network unique to this “ Digital ownership ” The scarcity of attention is monetized , Finally become NFT The value of the subject matter , This is what we mentioned at the beginning of this section NFT Benefit the movement , Now, of course NFT The hype seems to outweigh the value itself . ad locum , Digital collection NFT The value of traditional goods is defined as “ Undifferentiated human labor ” Our values have diverged ,NFT The uniqueness and scarcity of digital content constructed is not the unique scarcity of nature , It is based on the independence established by the group consensus mechanism on the blockchain , Make it have some objectivity ： That is, the whole network consensus recognizes that you are unique , So you are unique . This uniqueness is not innate , But the day after tomorrow by attracting group attention and consensus recognition , This is a kind of “ The correspondence of truth ” To “ Truth consensus theory ” The shift of values . actually , The great development of the industrial revolution has brought great enrichment to the material world , And in a world of great material abundance , Especially in the digital world , The less, the more valuable logic has lost its universality , Instead, the more famous, the more valuable , So the stars bring goods 、 Fan economy came into being , The scarcity of matter is no longer important , The scarcity of attention is actually competed for , and NFT The emergence of is the appearance of this scarcity and value transfer . therefore ,NFT Itself is a challenge to the traditional labor theory of value , In the new era of digital economy , data 、 Calculate the force 、 Even attention is a factor of production , The process of commodity production is very different from that in the past , Labor in the era of digital economy can no longer simply apply the traditional economic theory to think ,NFT It is a reflection and attempt on the new economic system under this background .
From a sociological point of view , Bitcoin represents a critical reflection of some fundamental problems in real society , It actually exists as the opposite of the real society , Bitcoin abstracts these critical values stored in the dark world into a cryptocurrency symbol in an abstract way , And this symbol eventually evolved into a new value carrier , But its own value comes from some people's criticism of practical problems and their distrust and anxiety about the current economic system , And expectations for future changes , Rather than scarce content or goods in the specific physical or digital world , It doesn't reflect “ Undifferentiated human labor ”, Therefore, as a cryptocurrency system closed in the virtual world and self-contained , Bitcoin cannot succeed , Nor can it become a currency with a wide audience and circulation .NFT Our success lies in its “ Heterogeneous ” Its characteristics perfectly connect itself with the external existing value world , Connect with a wider range of value carriers , Found a way to infiltrate the social logic and values behind bitcoin into the content cultural creation process of the digital world and the production labor of the physical world （ You need to map to the digital world first ） The way . here ,NFT It is no longer a pure monetary symbol closed in the virtual world , But represents the fundamental evolution of the value carrier , Become an asset form that can be bound to all content in the digital world , This programmable digital asset is decoupled from all physical constraints , Monetize all digital content , Eventually become a value carrier . Once the tide of digital transformation completes the mapping from the physical world to the digital world , That is, when everything can be digital assets , All things can be NFT The era of will also come , This is also NFT It is considered to be the meta universe and Web3 The reasons for the economic system . But at this stage NFT It's still in its infancy ,NFT The object is limited ,NFT Our products are also relatively simple , The relevant economic theory and legal supervision are still under discussion , And now it's hot NFT Digital art is far from being a social commodity , It is also an art collection driven by fans' desire to take the bait and hype . however , With NFT Maturity of infrastructure 、 Rich functions of smart contract , And the improvement of governance system and economic theory ,NFT It is very likely to become the basic flow unit in the era of digital economy , With the digital transformation of the whole society and the promotion of the marketization of data elements ,NFT It is also likely to become the foundation of the new economic system in the future digital economy era .
3.3 Next generation Internet ——Web3.0
comparison DAO and NFT And other trendy terms , The world knows Web It seems both mediocre and vicissitudes . However , It is from the historical track Web, After meeting the blockchain born for the future , Set off the next generation of Internet ——Web3.0 Huge waves . in fact , Before the popularity of blockchain and the decentralization of user rights and interests brought by blockchain ,Web3.0 The concept of has already existed , It's just at this time Web 3.0 More emphasis is placed on the semantic Internet （ Or a more intelligent Internet ）, In the era of traditional Internet Web2.0 The continuation of , And then Web3.0 The core of is more emphasis on the popularization and application of artificial intelligence technology on the Internet , Instead of focusing on the concepts of decentralization and user rights . indeed , This period is good for Web3.0 The understanding of the , It is more about the local optimization and upgrading of the traditional Internet and the continuation of technology under the limited technical conditions and thinking paradigm , Not to tradition Web1.0 and Web2.0 Disruptive change , Therefore, it has not been solved Web2.0 Many problems of the times . After the emergence of blockchain technology and concept , Its value and trust infrastructure capabilities are rapidly superimposed on the traditional information internet , In addition, it is built on Web2.0 The centralized Internet monopoly platform violates the spirit of free and fair Internet and exploits the rights and interests of user data elements ,Web3.0 The concept and significance of 2021 It was continuously deepened and expanded in and finally broke out , Together with the meta universe, it depicts the blueprint of the next generation Internet . therefore , As described in this section Web3.0 All refer to the next generation based on blockchain technology Web, Not just the early concept of intelligent Internet .
in fact ,Web2.0 and Web1.0 It is an overview and summary of the existing and previous Internet , and Web3.0 It is more about the ideological guidance and theoretical framework construction of how to develop the next generation Internet . Understanding Web3.0 Before , It is necessary for us to know Web1.0 and Web2.0 And its inherent defects that hinder the development of productive forces . generally ,Web1.0 Refers to the first generation of static internet without user interaction , Its main application is network media , The platform owner is responsible for the editing and production of content , Readers visit the website to browse the content , Users can only read, not write , Unable to participate in content creation ,Web1.0 It is equivalent to the electronization of traditional newspapers and magazines ,Web1.0 The operating paradigm is ： Platform creation 、 Platform owned 、 Platform control 、 The platform benefits ;Web2.0 It refers to the interactive second generation Internet , Its main applications are social networks and e-commerce , At this time, the platform owner only provides the infrastructure platform , It rarely creates content itself , Most of the content comes from user creation . However , Platform owners rely on control of infrastructure , With “ free ” The mode infiltrates its own rights to the user side , And imperceptibly encroach on the ownership of user data , This means that the ownership and control of the digital content created by users belong to the platform , How to distribute the value of digital content , And the value of users' behavior footprint on the Internet , All controlled by the platform , The platform can decide to edit 、 modify 、 Delete and block any content created by users , You can even seal or expel users from the platform . therefore Web2.0 The operating paradigm is ： User creation 、 Platform owned 、 Platform control 、 Platform allocation .
Web1.0 To Web2.0 Realize the transformation from content consumers to content producers , Its essence is the participation of the whole people “ On-line ” The great migration movement —— Copy and migrate the physical world to the online world .“ On-line ” The migration movement is an Internet reproduction of the past social and economic structure , Market factors 、 The social organization structure and trust relationship have realized the transfer to the Internet platform , And the moment of production factors “ On-line ” To a large extent, it has brought great improvement of production efficiency to the whole society . however ,“ On-line ” The movement of migration has not changed the nature of the physical world , It still maintains the same old offline state on the line , The problem of centralization still exists online , And with the online transmission of a large amount of information and data , Make the problem of centralization more prominent , The disorderly expansion of capital under platform monopoly frequently touches the endurance limit of the whole society , Data security and privacy protection have become urgent problems to be solved in the Internet , and Web2.0 A birthright characteristic , Determines the way to solve this problem , Remove strong external supervision , Rely only on Web2.0 Self evolution seems powerless . As a whole ,Web2.0 Just technology migration , The production relations that hinder the development of productive forces have also been copied to the online , And after a period of savage growth , This obstacle has become extremely obvious ： stay Web1.0 Time , Although the production of digital content and data is limited to a small range , But it's in line with “ Who created 、 Who owns it 、 Who benefits ” Basic principles of market economy ;Web2.0 Time , Digital content related to the Creator , And data ownership and data value are deprived by the platform , User value is drawn at will , Form a digital slavery system , This is a distortion from a socio-economic point of view 、 Unjustified , From the perspective of the transformation and evolution of production relations , It's an act of reversing history .
And Web1.0 and Web2.0 Different ,Web3.0 Emphasize the digital content created by users , Its ownership is owned by the user , User controlled , The value it creates , The user makes independent distribution according to the agreement signed with others , That is, user created 、 Users own and control . actually , stay Web3.0 Under the system of , Digital content created by users is no longer simple data , It's digital assets , It is a data production factor that can be configured in a market-oriented way , Because its rights lie in Web3.0 Under the system, it is guaranteed by the traditional asset level ,Web3.0 The operation paradigm advocated is ： User creation 、 Owned by the user 、 User control 、 Autonomous distribution . For now ,Web3.0 It's still at an extremely early stage , Related concepts and technologies are still in the process of discussion and development , But to be sure ,Web3.0 The appearance of will be “ The digital age ” and “ Digital economy ” Bring new meaning , Although it is difficult for us to imagine the future at this stage Web3.0 The Internet world under the system , But we should firmly believe that the future of the Internet must be towards “ efficiency 、 fair 、 credit 、 value ” Internet development direction . If the Internet is regarded as a virtual world parallel to the physical world , that Web1.0 and Web2.0 It is like slavery and feudalism in the physical world , and Web3.0 It is the era of market economy in the physical world . The emergence of market economy in the physical world , It has greatly released productivity , Improved the economic level ; In the digital world Web3.0 Appearance , I believe it will have the same and similar effect ： A new era of digital economy will be born , New business model , The new market economy , And subject to Web2.0 A lot of innovation will erupt from the bottom up .
It's important to point out that ,Web3.0 The development of is inseparable from the support of blockchain technology . Three inherent technical characteristics of blockchain , In fact, it is Web3.0 The technical basis for the establishment of the concept ： First , Blockchain is a distributed computing protocol , Distributed computing protocols stipulate how different stakeholders create and maintain a distributed computing infrastructure , So as to achieve “ Infrastructure management rights ” And “ User data control ” Separation between , To prevent something like Web2.0 The era manages power through infrastructure platforms , Implement user data 、 Control of user assets and user identity ; secondly , Blockchain is a transparent and credible right confirmation and traceability system , Once the user's assets are converted into on chain pass , Can be confirmed , And can track its circulation on the chain in the whole process 、 transaction 、 The whole process of conversion ; Last , Blockchain is also a platform for protocol creation and automatic execution , Smart contract is the concentrated embodiment of this ability , Through smart contracts , The distribution agreement of rights and values does not need the help of a trusted third party , Can be efficient 、 accuracy 、 trusted 、 Auditable automatic execution . in fact , Blockchain decentralization 、 De trust and tamper proof features , Good benchmarking Web3.0 Realize that each user has his own data 、 Identity and fate of the next generation of Internet goals . Besides ,Web3.0 The development of is also inseparable from the opening certificate （Token） economic , Because even on the blockchain , Only the pass can be confirmed and managed , If users' digital rights and interests want to be recognized and protected , Then it must be verified , Because general data cannot be protected even on the chain . And for now , future Web3.0 Pass on , Most will be NFT, This is also NFT Considered the future Web3.0 And the main reasons for the foundation of the meta cosmic economic system .
3.4 Virtual reality coexists with the future —— Meta universe
2021 Year is the first year of the meta universe , In this year, the primordial universe showed an explosive force beyond imagination . For all that , At this stage, the meta universe is still a developing 、 The embryonic concept of evolution , There is no clear definition of authority , Different participants also enrich the connotation of the meta universe with their own understanding and ways . Issued by Tsinghua University 《 Research Report on the development of meta universe 》 Think ：“ Yuancosmos is a new Internet application and social form integrating virtual reality produced by integrating a variety of new technologies , It provides an immersive experience based on extended reality technology , Based on digital twin technology to generate the mirror image of the real world , Build an economic system based on blockchain technology , Integrate the virtual world with the real world in the economic system 、 Social system 、 Close integration on the identity system , And allow each user to produce content and edit the world .” And there is always “ The first strand of the meta universe ” Of Roblox Then it gives eight elements of the meta universe ：“ identity 、 social contact 、 immersion 、 Low latency 、 diversified 、 Whenever and wherever possible 、 Economic system and civilization ”, according to Roblox Description of , People can go anywhere 、 Low latency links to the metauniverse , Engage in immersive social interaction with the image of virtual identity , At the same time, the meta universe has a large number of diversified contents and excellent economic system to ensure that people can live in the meta universe for a long time , Improve and even create digital civilization together . Take a look at , The universe is more like “ The theory of unification ” Large application of fusion scenario driven by , It is after human beings aggregate all technical fields and branches of schools , A community that imagines the future digital new world , And this community is still in the imagination , There is no concrete concept . The yuan universe is also like the tower of heaven under construction , Too abstract targets and numerous scaffolds on the periphery block the public's peeping at its posture , If Cloud Computing 、 Blockchain 、 Artificial intelligence and other new generation technologies are local changes in the history of human science and technology , The meta universe is the overall transformation of the pan technical field and multi-dimensional scene , Hopefully in humans “ Big technology ” After stagnation and the structural and institutional difficulties of the traditional economy , Bring breakthrough changes and global optimal solutions to the sustainable and high-quality development of the whole society .
From the perspective of Technology , The meta universe is not a technology , But a series of “ Line up the dots ” A large collection of technologies , The meta universe is a fusion of information technology （5G/6G）、 Next generation Internet （Web3.0）、 Artificial intelligence 、 Cloud computing 、 big data 、 Blockchain 、 Digital twins and extended reality （VR、AR、MR） And virtual engine, etc. after the technology has developed to a certain stage “ unified ” Fused crystals , And the development of meta cosmic technology integration , On the one hand, it will lead to basic mathematics 、 information science 、 Life science （ Brain computer access ）、 Blockchain 、 Quantum computing has independently developed the cross research and integrated application of new and old hard technologies for many years ; On the other hand , As an independent, autonomous and virtual social system , The meta universe must also bring philosophy 、 Law 、 logic 、 New breakthroughs in ethics and other supporting humanities and soft science and Technology . From the application level , The universe is Web 3.0 A big application scenario , It is based on blockchain , De centralization ,DAO government ,NFT economic , The real and the virtual are living together , Co creation driven by creators 、 Co governance 、 Share the new digital world , And in this new digital world , Yuancosmos will promote the Internet from “ On-line ” Upgrade to “ Be present ”, It will promote the migration from the civilization based on social contract theory in the physical world to the civilization based on mathematical contract theory in the virtual world , The final implementation is constrained by the pre mathematical algorithm and contract code 、 Governing the social system . in addition , The universe is not a game , One of the main entrances to the universe , It is also an important part of the meta universe .
chart 1 The yuan universe is the integration and unification of technology groups after connecting points and forming lines
From the perspective of the structure of the meta universe , The yuan universe consists of the infrastructure layer 、 Human computer interaction layer 、 Decentralization layer 、 Spatial computing layer 、 The creator's economic layer 、 Discovery layer 、 The experience layer consists of seven levels , Each level has its own broad technical fields and application scenarios ; From the perspective of metacosmic industrial chain Ecology , Metauniverse involves hardware plate 、 Software 、 Service sector 、 Application and content: four industrial chain sectors . Integrate the seven structural levels and four industrial chain plates of the meta universe , The ecological map of the meta universe can be summarized as the underlying technology 、 Front end devices 、 Three areas of scene content . The underlying technology includes chip technology 、5G/6G Communications technology 、 Distributed cloud technology 、 Artificial intelligence technology 、 Blockchain Technology 、 Privacy computing technology 、 Internet of things technology 、 Virtual engine technology 、 Interaction technology 、 Video game technology, etc , Front end equipment includes AR、VR、MR Such as virtual reality interaction to expand real-world devices , The scene content includes generative AI、 Digital twinning and other related technologies . It can be seen that , The meta universe is all inclusive , It has gone far beyond the scope of a single product or technology , It is more like the concentrated convergence and display of the outstanding achievements of the whole scientific and technological community since the modern scientific and technological civilization , It is all industrial civilization facing the physical world 、 The technological progress of social civilization and virtual world is the sum of point and area , Its potential may be beyond the imagination of all current researchers , But at this stage , The meta universe is still far away from us , We cannot predict the future development of the meta universe , Nor is it certain what the metauniverse will eventually grow into . The only thing that's certain is , The universe is a bright future , And as part of the creation of the meta universe , Everyone has the opportunity to participate in the creation of , And affect the direction and final outcome of the meta universe , Because the real meta universe does not belong to any technology giant , It belongs to everyone , The content of the meta universe comes from all participants , And this is the most attractive place of the meta universe .
Wu Jun in 《 A general history of global science and technology 》 I mentioned ：“ The two main lines of studying the history of science and technology are energy and information , If we list the inventions that have the greatest impact on mankind in history , Will find the technological and economic development of human society , It is basically carried out along the two main lines of energy and information .” Human beings follow the main line of energy and information technology , It can be divided into outward expansion on the main line of energy “ Space pie ” And expanding inward on the main line of information “ Metacosmic school ”, Therefore, the emergence of the meta universe itself is a historical necessity after the development of science and technology to a certain stage , If outer space exploration is the epitome of energy technology , Yuancosmos is the epitome of information technology . The meta universe and the Starry Sea are not competing opposites , The former expands inward , The latter extends outward , In the end, all roads lead to the same goal , common development . Energy technology without information technology , It is impossible to realize the star sea , Simply think of the metauniverse as the entry of technology into “ Stasis period ” and “ Drooping fruit ” Be picked up , Unable to explore and expand outward, the product of human involution , It's premature and hasty to conclude . however , The yuan universe is the epitome of the scientific and technological revolution , It covers a wide range , Far more than any technological change relied on by previous industrial revolutions or major transformation of economic system , As the concentrated embodiment of the cluster effect of human scientific and technological achievements , At present, the metauniverse is in an extremely early stage , It's not predictable , Therefore, we should abandon the desire for great achievements and radicalism , Positive optimism and chronism are the rational attitude towards the meta universe at this stage .
Throw away the theoretical conception and temptation blueprint of the new universe , From the reality of Industrial Development , At present, the meta universe industry is still in a limited period of development + Game application scenario foundation stage , The scene entrance needs to be expanded , The singularity of the explosion is still unknown , The conceptual layout of the meta universe is still focused on expanding the field of reality and game social networking , Technology ecology and content ecology are not yet mature , Virtual economic currency system related to meta universe 、 Moral ethics and legal supervision are in the early stage of development , There is still an immeasurable gap between the ideal world imagined by the meta universe and the real development . As the core foundation of the meta universe , Decentralization seems to be a false proposition in the real meta universe , Because the complete monetary system in the meta universe 、 economic order 、 Social rules 、 Management system 、 Cultural system and even legal constraints , All need the participation and supervision of centralized organizations . Besides , In the early stage of the development of the meta universe, the competitive situation of each giant determines the relative closeness of its ecology , The immature and inefficient development of blockchain Technology , It also determines that at the initial stage of development, the meta universe Internet school will surpass the blockchain school for a period of time , Therefore, whether we can realize the complete opening and decentralization of the meta universe , Still an unsolved mystery , After all, the Internet, which called for decentralization 20 years ago, finally became a new Center .
At this stage , Predictable meta universe application scenarios should follow the game 、 exhibition 、 education 、 Design planning 、 Medical care 、 The development path of government public services and industrial manufacturing , That is from 2C Gradually penetrate into 2B. The cluster effect brought by the meta universe as a technology integrator , Its development process needs at least technological change 、 Three stages of industrial transformation and ultimate form . The first stage is the period of technological change , With VR、AR、MR The gradual spread and decentralization of front-end hardware equipment should be based on （Dapp） Popularization is the main line of development , The portal application at this stage mainly focuses on decentralized social networking + The pan entertainment form of the game is mainly . The second stage is the period of industrial transformation , Mainly based on computational power 、AI、 Blockchain 、 Communication technology and other meta cosmic infrastructure are gradually improved as the main line of development , Industrial blockchain 、 The industrial meta universe has become a consensus , The Yuanzhou economic system is mature and operates normally , The industry began to use the meta universe to seek a new competitive track and production mode , To comprehensively improve the social production efficiency restricted by the traditional economic structure . The third stage is the ultimate form stage , It mainly focuses on the possible application of brain computer interface in the future and the interconnection of heterogeneous multi universe platforms , The meta universe blockchain school has become the mainstream , In the early stage, multiple independent virtual platforms began to aggregate and cross chain , The digital universe, which is composed of countless virtual worlds or digital contents and is constantly colliding and expanding, has entered a state of self evolution , Users are expected to use the brain computer interface anytime, anywhere 、 Low latency links to the metauniverse , Engage in immersive social interaction with the image of virtual identity , The interaction with the virtual world reaches the state of virtual reality symbiosis , The era of meta universe has really come . As a prediction of the development and application of the meta universe , The first stage is more about scenario application exploration in the mature stage of technology , The value of the meta universe will not be really released until the second stage , And the realization of the second stage , It may take about ten years , And the establishment of the ultimate form of the meta universe , It may be 20 years later .
4、 The advanced way of blockchain and privacy computing in traditional enterprises
At present , The application of blockchain technology has entered the deep water area , Gradually penetrate from the Internet and financial field to traditional entity enterprises . The combination of blockchain and traditional industries , On the one hand, it is conducive to the real entry of the blockchain itself “ place ”, On the other hand, it also helps to promote the transformation and upgrading of the industry 、 Mention mass efficiency , Help the real economy create new value increment and high-quality development . Blockchain is based on trusted information flow , At this stage, it mainly serves production collaboration 、 Circulation management 、 Combination of industry and Finance 、 Digital finance and other fields , Through the flow of matter 、 Opening up of capital flow , Realize the reliable interconnection of data elements between enterprise entities , Promote credible collaboration among participants , Serving the real economy , Promote the in-depth development of industrial Internet . meanwhile , Blockchain is the technical realization of solving production relations , It is a hub for cross industry and cross technology integration , And other technologies representing advanced productive forces “ Add ” Instead of “ subversion ” Relationship , Therefore, blockchain itself cannot be applied to traditional industries in isolation , Simple blockchain technology cannot form a complete solution , It can not solve the complex problems faced by traditional enterprise digitization , Blockchain can only integrate and coexist with existing digital technologies , With “ Blockchain +” Application mode cuts into the industry , To play its “ Value Internet trust base ” The potential for change .
in addition , Blockchain is not a panacea , We can't cover all the sticking points in the transformation and development of traditional enterprises , The selection of blockchain application scenarios needs to have certain business characteristics and technical compatibility , Instead of “ Everything can be done again with blockchain ”. Especially for traditional enterprises , The blockchain at this stage reflects more long-term strategic value , Rather than the quick liquidity of current value . therefore , The infrastructure construction and application innovation path of traditional enterprise blockchain need to be planned scientifically 、 Rational choice 、 Step by step , Blindly following the trend of blockchain construction and application innovation , It's probably just a fake innovation under gorgeous packaging , Finally staged 《 The emperor's new dress 》 Reality , It will only increase the technical burden and business load of the enterprise , It is not the original intention of blockchain to enable the real economy .
4.1 Construction, implementation and application path planning of traditional enterprise blockchain
Blockchain is the trust infrastructure for enterprises to move towards the era of value Internet , For traditional enterprises , Especially for large and diversified enterprises , The application innovation of blockchain should be planned as a whole , Do a good job in top-level design and promotion path , Avoid going back to the age of information systems 、 The phenomenon of isolated islands and data isolation fragments . Besides , Blockchain is an innovative frontier technology , The technology itself is in iterative development , Whether it's a performance bottleneck , Still use the threshold , And the generality of applicable scenarios , Blockchain distance becomes a true universal trust infrastructure , Whether it is the evolution of technology itself or the maturity of industrial application , There is still a long way to go . For most traditional enterprises , We suggest that the design and construction of blockchain infrastructure technology architecture should be carried out orderly in three stages ： The first stage , To build a cloud chain integration 、 The trust infrastructure platform for cross chain interoperability is the goal ; The second stage , Take the business field that conforms to the technical characteristics of blockchain as the starting point , From point to area , Vertical and horizontal construction of enterprise trusted data circulation network ; The third stage , With blockchain + Privacy computing is the foundation of technology , Facing the era of data element marketization , Build an enterprise trusted value circulation network , Realize the upgrading from enterprise data circulation to value circulation . For blockchain applications , In the short term, the public chain is not in line with the actual situation in China , Based on the alliance chain “ Blockchain +” This is the mainstream direction for the implementation of industrial blockchain , Corresponding to the three-stage blockchain trust infrastructure construction process , Traditional enterprise blockchain applications can deposit certificates from the chain 、 The three application modes of on chain cooperation and on chain value transfer progress layer by layer , From simplicity to complexity , Carry out blockchain application innovation from shallow to deep , Different business segments of the enterprise can start from the business scenario that best fits the technical characteristics of the blockchain （ Such as supply chain finance 、 Electronic bill of lading 、 Product traceability, etc ）, Then through cross chain interoperability , Realize the interconnection between the underlying blockchain engine and the upper application of different business segments , Finally, the blockchain is applied from point to surface 、 Horizontally spread to more vertical business scenarios in the enterprise .
To be specific , In the first stage, it is necessary to clarify the positioning of blockchain as an enterprise trust infrastructure , With “ Cloud chain integration ” For the construction goal , Build to “ Blockchain + Cloud computing ” Cloud native trust infrastructure at the core , Integrate the core functions of blockchain and surrounding supporting capabilities into cloud services , Realization “ High cold ” Self service use of blockchain capabilities , Create a cloud oriented era , Blockchain core 、 An enterprise class enterprise integrating expansion and supporting functions BaaS（Blockchain as a service, Blockchain and services ） platform ; meanwhile , Build heterogeneous systems with strong compatibility 、 Easy to use cross chain service components , In order to meet the demands of Multi Chain coexistence and cross chain interoperability in the practice of overall management of enterprise headquarters and independent development of plates , Avoid the formation of isolated enterprises under the coexistence of multiple chains “ Chain Island ”, Build a cross chain enterprise “ Chain net ”, Finally, the enterprise “ Unified chain tube , Multiple chains coexist ” The blockchain infrastructure and heterogeneous chains are compatible and coexist . The second stage , Based on the original biochemistry of blockchain function service cloud , Rely on blockchain to build a trust channel for the whole process of enterprise data , Promote enterprises to “ Trust chain ”、“ Collaboration chain ” To guide the construction of industrial blockchain innovation and application , Promote data sharing between internal sectors of enterprises or between internal and external entities 、 Close collaboration , Give priority to the application scenario that is consistent with the technical characteristics of blockchain to expand the entrance , Build a horizontal business collaboration chain covering the whole sector of the enterprise , Vertically build the vertical industrial ecological trust and coordination chain of each plate , Then through cross chain interoperability , Between the underlying platform layers of blockchain 、 Interconnection between application layers , Finally, realize the cross subject of the enterprise 、 Cross domain 、 Cross regional trusted collaborative network construction and business collaborative innovation . The third stage , Based on the enterprise vertical and horizontal trusted cooperation network , Combined with privacy Computing , Realize the separation of enterprise data ownership and data use right , Build the enterprise “ Available not visible ” Data flow integration mechanism , Realize the enterprise from “ Data flow ” To “ Data value circulation ” The shift of the times , Build enterprise value Internet era “ Data does not move and value flows ” The core competencies of , Promote the transformation of enterprises to the era of data element capitalization and marketization .
4.2 Cloud chain integration and unified chain management , Multi Chain coexistence and cross chain interworking
Blockchain as a trust infrastructure in the value oriented Internet era , At this stage, its application in traditional enterprises has not been popularized in all aspects , Because the related technology is too “ High cold ” And the lack of talent , Make the construction of blockchain projects in traditional enterprises , Especially the realization of technology platform level , Basically, the whole process is mainly outsourced by manufacturers , Resulting in a long project cycle , Trial and error costs a lot , Poor flexibility and autonomy , In addition, the scene selection has a certain threshold , Therefore, it is difficult to have the potential for popularization and use . in fact , The popularization of any general technology , All need to experience the proposal of academic concepts 、 Driven by the capital market 、 Developers embrace and Engineer , The last is the application attempt of the enterprise . And the maturity of Technology Engineering , It directly determines the efficiency of new technology in enterprise application 、 cost 、 Four dimensional indicators of universality and security , These four-dimensional indicators are the reference to judge whether a new technology can become a revolutionary general technology . For now , Blockchain technology is in the process of continuous engineering development , At the same time, enterprise application attempts are also keeping pace , Blockchain efficiency in enterprise applications 、 cost 、 The embodiment of universality and security still needs corresponding preconditions . In view of this , We believe that the first stage of traditional enterprise blockchain layout , It's about building a universal 、 Easy to use , Scalable 、 All cloud blockchain trust infrastructure platform , Integrated with cloud chain 、 The idea of unified chain management , Comprehensively engineering blockchain related technologies , Relying on the cloud native platform , Practice “ Blockchain + Cloud computing ” The engineering concept of , Connect blockchain with Internet of things 、 Artificial intelligence 、 big data 、 Privacy computing and other technologies are integrated into the cloud , The trust infrastructure capability of blockchain , Enable and output in the form of cloud services , Make the use of blockchain as simple and efficient as general cloud computing power .
Blockchain is a comprehensive technology to solve the trust relationship between people , It is an interdisciplinary hub in the field of multi-disciplinary technology , Its technical composition is usually divided into core technology 、 Expansion technology and supporting technology . The core technology is the necessary technology to constitute the blockchain system , Including consensus mechanisms 、 Intelligent contract 、 cryptographic algorithm 、 Peer-to-peer networks 、 Distributed storage, etc ; Extended technology refers to the core technology of blockchain when applied to enterprise scenarios , We also need to enhance the extended peripheral services , Including interoperability 、 Extensibility 、 Collaborative governance 、 Security, privacy, etc ; Supporting technologies refer to technologies related to blockchain system security and use experience , Including system security 、 Operational deployment 、 Infrastructure, etc . The so-called blockchain engineering , It refers to the integration of the three technologies that make up the blockchain 、 Service oriented construction , Shield and encapsulate the underlying technology complexity of blockchain through engineering , With Web Interface and API Expose blockchain capabilities in the form of . at present , Mainstream manufacturers have basically formed this consensus , With “ Blockchain + Cloud computing ” It is an engineering concept , With “ Cloud chain integration ” Target , Using the shielding and packaging capabilities of cloud native technology , Integrate the bottom layer of blockchain 、 Integrated development tools 、 Smart contract management 、 Automatic operation and maintenance 、 Digital identity 、 Cross chain services and other functions in one , Build blockchain as a service （BaaS） platform , Realize the one-stop development and deployment of blockchain underlying and applications , Build a blockchain shared trust infrastructure platform , Realize enterprise heterogeneity 、 Unified management of the whole life cycle with the coexistence of isomorphic and multi chains , With cloud computing 、 The Internet of things 、 Integration and symbiosis of artificial intelligence and other technologies , Continuously sink blockchain technology into a general trust infrastructure platform .
For traditional enterprises , Especially diversified or group traditional enterprises , Usually, business segments span many fields , Even each has its own Ecology , The business segments operate independently and are difficult to coordinate . in addition , Traditional large enterprises usually have a business relationship with the national economy and the people's livelihood , Data security and its importance , However, digital culture and technology are weak , Lack of talents and low innovation and fault tolerance rate , The project funds are tight , As a result, although there are thousands of scenes , It's usually more than the heart but less than the strength . however , Traditional enterprise front-line business experts are interested in business processes 、 Business pain points , Even the future innovation and development direction of the business has a degree of familiarity . For a long time , Traditional enterprises have always had industrial advantages rather than technical capabilities , If the construction of industrial blockchain cannot understand the deep meaning , Usually you can only get half the result with twice the effort . In view of the actual situation of most traditional enterprises , The first stage is the construction of blockchain trust infrastructure platform , We believe that at least several principles should be followed ：
1、 Cloud chain integration , Full cloud
The underlying logic of cloud chain integration , It's about simplifying things , Taking cloud native as the core, engineering blockchain technology into platform services , Let blockchain applications focus on business innovation , Rather than technical understanding and Research . The realistic premise of cloud chain integration , The reason is that cloud computing has become a digital universal infrastructure , And gathered the Internet of things 、 Artificial intelligence 、 Core digital technologies such as big data , Cloud computing has become “ Blockchain +” The realistic foundation of landing , Traditional software independent deployment and delivery mode , It will only push the blockchain to an isolated technology corner , However, the blockchain technology alone cannot solve most of the industrial scenario problems . Besides , Cloud native as a general underlying technology , It has the core technology of shielding and encapsulating complex blockchain 、 Expand the capacity of technology and supporting technology , Build blockchain with cloud native technology BaaS platform , No matter now or in the future , Both are the best way for the engineering of blockchain technology system , It is also the only correct way for blockchain to integrate and coexist with other digital technologies .
Cloud chain integration 、 Full cloudization not only means blockchain services and the resource system of the cloud computing platform itself 、 Account system 、 Billing system 、 Log monitoring system is deeply integrated , It also means deep integration with other digital technologies in the cloud , The ultimate goal is not only to realize the cloud service of the whole stack of blockchain capabilities , At the same time, we should also realize “ Blockchain +” Cloud service of capability . therefore , Simply deploy blockchain services to cloud tenants , Not a cloud chain , At most, it is just a repetition of the traditional software delivery model on the cloud .
2、 Open compatibility , Unified chain tube
Blockchain is a comprehensive technology to solve social trust based on mathematical civilization , Its inherent decentralized characteristics and the complexity of the social trust relationship to be solved , It is doomed that the technological development of blockchain and its scenario application will inevitably move towards openness and compatibility . In terms of technical realization , The underlying engine of blockchain blooms , Mainstream mature blockchain engines at home and abroad include Ethereum、Quorum、Hyperledger Fabric、EOS、R3 Corda、CITA、FISCO BCOS、Hyperchain、Xuperchian、 Ant chain 、 Changan chain 、 Bobby chain, etc , And behind each type of blockchain engine , Both hide the application scenarios suitable for their respective technology implementation and the social ecological relationship shaped by the relevant enterprise communities behind them . in fact , The current development of blockchain Technology , Like the rise of early Cloud Computing , All kinds of private cloud 、 Public cloud technology goes hand in hand , Each has its own system , Finally, driven by diversified market demand , adopt Kubernetes“ Book with wen 、 The car is on the same track ” Integration of , Finally, it moves towards an inclusive hybrid cloud model , Heterogeneous and diversified infrastructure at the bottom of cloud computing , The middle layer shields the package downward 、 Upward unified runtime , The upper layer unified cloud management architecture , It has basically become the ultimate architecture model of cloud computing platform . And the development of blockchain Technology , Eventually, it will be like a withdrawal .
in fact , There is no absolute advantage in the current blockchain technology , Select the most suitable blockchain underlying technology for different business scenarios or business environments , It has become the primary principle when building the blockchain project . therefore , How to shield the diversity and difference of the underlying engines of the blockchain , Inclusive multi class blockchain underlying engine technology , Support for pluggable multi consensus mechanism and multi language smart contract , Centralized and unified management of upper heterogeneous multi chain , It's an enterprise blockchain BaaS The core of platform construction . On the same blockchain platform , Achieve no difference 、 Independent optional heterogeneous chain creation and unified chain management , For business diversification 、 For traditional enterprises with different ecological sectors , Will be a very important design consideration , Because the open compatibility of blockchain platforms often determines the breadth of enterprise ecology and the diversity of application scenarios that can be built , The diversified business scenario of traditional enterprises 、 Diversified social and ecological relations , The demand for personalized chain building will be the inevitable norm . Open and compatible with multiple engines , Centralized chain tube heterogeneous chain .
3、 Cross chain interworking , Multiple chains coexist
Traditional information internet era , The enterprise system is isolated 、 The current situation of chimneys and data islands everywhere , It has brought great trouble to the digital construction of enterprises . Value Internet and post cloud computing era , The application planning of blockchain technology should avoid “ Chain Island ” The appearance of the phenomenon , Avoid repeating the mistakes of the information internet era , As a result, the old chimney barriers of enterprises have not been broken through , The new chain island problem appears again . therefore , Enterprises should build a network that can be interconnected vertically and horizontally “ Chain net ” Trust infrastructure , Realize data on and off the chain 、 Isomorphic or heterogeneous chains 、 Free interworking between applications on the chain , Truly realize the free flow of data value on the trust infrastructure . With the application of industrial blockchain in all walks of life represented by traditional enterprises , Special chain 、 The future blockchain application pattern of Multi Chain coexistence has basically taken shape , How to realize interoperability under the pattern of Multi Chain coexistence , It has become the most practical concern of blockchain application .
generally , Blockchain interoperability can be divided into inter chain and cross chain interoperability 、 On chain application layer interoperability and on chain and off chain interoperability , Cross chain interoperability is the difficulty and focus of the industry , It is also the key to reflect the ecological scale effect and convergence effect on the chain , Whether it is the internal chain ecology of the enterprise , Or the future Web3 And the meta universe , Cross chain interoperability is the key to realizing the future vision of blockchain . in fact , The difficulty of cross chain interoperability lies not only in the technical implementation , It is also due to the lack of current blockchain industry standards and consensus , The heroes without standard traction rise together , It will inevitably bring difficulties to communicate with each other , Although many cross chain projects have come out , However, the difficulty of operation and the support for the underlying chain engine are still not ideal . therefore , At this stage, traditional enterprises are in the process of building blockchain trust infrastructure , It needs to be based on the long-term and take into account the reality , Find the best balance between the selection of blockchain underlying engine and cross chain compatibility , To meet the actual cross chain needs , For the future, it can be extended to support more cross chain interoperability , Cross chain communication for future enterprises 、 Make advance planning for the blockchain application pattern of Multi Chain coexistence .
chart 4 The first stage of enterprise blockchain construction ： Cloud chain integration trust infrastructure platform
4.3 Horizontal main chain public service , Vertical sub chain business scenario
Blockchain as the infrastructure of value Internet , Its development trend is the same as that of information internet infrastructure . As a carrier of information transmission , The information internet has gradually developed from a sporadic local area network to a global interconnected wide area network , Blockchain is the carrier of trust transmission , It is also gradually developing from independent industry chains and regional chains to cross chain interconnection , The chain of sparks , It is gradually starting a prairie fire and becoming the chain network infrastructure of the whole society . In summary , The industrial blockchain infrastructure is made up of people with extensive access capabilities 、 Public service capacity 、 Flexible deployment of the main chain （ Including public chain or alliance chain for specific industries ）, And the chain network service facilities composed of cross chain systems or business sub chains connecting these main chains . In the future with Web3 Or metauniverse as the representative of the next generation Internet architecture , Limited by the performance problems of blockchain and the influence of decentralization concept , There must be no one or more chains that can carry and monopolize the whole network business , But the coexistence of ten thousand chains 、 The scenario of ten thousand chain Interconnection . And because of industry barriers 、 The existence of uneven resources and the need for social cooperation , In the future “ Wanlian ” It must be composed of the main chain for providing public services in multiple fields and the special multi business chain for social vertical industries , Each chain will still inherit the division of labor of social industries , Attend to each one's own duties , Jointly weave into the next generation Internet infrastructure . At this stage , We can see the balance chain in the judicial field 、 Letter chain in the field of deposit and certificate 、 Spark chain in the field of industrial Internet, etc , Are growing into public chains in various fields , meanwhile , The business sub chains of various industries are also gradually connected to the public main chain in relevant fields . Horizontal public main chain basic services , The vertical and horizontal pattern of industrial blockchain with deep value of vertical business sub chain is taking shape .
For traditional enterprises , Based on the goal of cloud chain integration in the first stage , The application planning of the second stage of industrial blockchain should also follow the principle of vertical and horizontal layout . For large , Especially the traditional group enterprises , Business segments or scenarios are extremely diversified , Moreover, the business ecosystem in their respective fields has been precipitated after years of business development , Regardless of the technical performance of the blockchain itself , Or starting from the actual needs of business scenario Innovation ,“ One enterprise, one chain ” The layout is unrealistic , In particular, many large traditional enterprises belong to the total score two-tier structure , Usually it is 1 A headquarters and M Business segments “1+M” Organizational structure , Headquarters work more to manage 、 Resource coordination 、 Focus on public services , The actual production and operation is the main responsibility of the subordinate business segment ,“ Headquarters empowerment 、 Plate operation ” It is the mainstream mode of most traditional enterprises in the digital era , The enterprise architecture model similar to the total score , Inevitably doomed the industrial blockchain “ Horizontal main chain public service , Vertical sub chain business scenario ” Layout . therefore , We believe that the top-level design of traditional enterprise industrial blockchain Application Architecture , Should use “1+M” or “N+M” The main sub chain group structure is the best choice , namely 1 A horizontal public main chain +M A vertical business sub chain or N A horizontal public main chain +M Vertical and horizontal chain network architecture of vertical business sub chain , Main chain and sub chain 、 Isomorphic or heterogeneous cross chain interoperability between sub chains and sub chains, as well as between internal main chains and external main chains , So as to realize the chain network infrastructure service of the enterprise itself .
chart 5 The second stage of enterprise blockchain construction ： Vertical and horizontal layout of main and sub chain groups
The so-called horizontal public main chain , It means to run through M A member enterprise or business segment , And open the alliance chain providing common services to all member enterprises , The existence of the horizontal main chain ensures that the data assets are efficiently distributed among the member units of the enterprise 、 Credible delivery , Build a trusted infrastructure for internal collaboration ; Vertical business sub chain , It refers to the business units according to the business development needs in the industry ecology , stay “ Unified chain tube ” Create... In principle , And achieve interoperability with the main chain M A parallel business sub chain , The underlying blockchain engine of each sub chain can be isomorphic or heterogeneous with the main chain , Just realize the cross chain interaction and interoperability of homogeneous or heterogeneous blockchains according to the main chain specification , The business model and consensus mechanism of the sub chain can be independently selected and operated . For enterprises , The main chain 1 or N The design of the , Depending on whether the business is diversified , Theoretically, a main chain can carry the operation of smart contracts representing multi domain public services , However, the design of multi main chain will be more conducive to the division and management of multi services and the improvement of service performance and experience . in addition , The enterprise's main chain is based on public basic services , It can also carry the business on the enterprise common chain , So as to play the role of business chain . In the future era of ten thousand chain interconnection and trusted infrastructure , No enterprise can be independent of its internal chain infrastructure , Therefore, the enterprise main chain will also undertake the important task of cross chain communication with the external industry ecological main chain and the national infrastructure main chain . in fact , In the vertical and horizontal layout of the main and sub chain groups of the industrial blockchain , The main chain is more a resource management service platform on the chain , It usually does not run specific businesses on the chain , It is mainly responsible for overall security and resource collaborative planning ; The sub chain focuses more on vertical industry value mining , Carrying specific business scenarios on the chain , Usually, once an enterprise explores new business on the chain , You can open a new business sub chain . For traditional enterprises , Industrial blockchain structure with horizontal and vertical layout of main and sub chain groups , It will not only help digital assets form a credible circulation of value within the enterprise , It is more helpful for enterprises to mine more detailed information in vertical fields 、 Deeper business scenarios and business values .
chart 6 The second stage of enterprise blockchain construction ： Cross chain interworking of vertical and horizontal main sub chain networks
4.4 Data trusted and safe sharing , Horizontal free circulation of value
Christensen is 《 The innovator's dilemma 》 The book puts forward the concept of value network , That is, no enterprise can exist independently , Its daily operation must involve upstream and downstream suppliers 、 Core enterprise 、 End consumer customers and other business entities or individuals . In the era of digital economy , The focus of enterprise value network is to connect relevant enterprises in various industrial chains , Form a network , Through cross enterprise industrial data fusion , Break enterprise boundaries , Remove data barriers , Let the fusion value of data be created through the network , That is, the realization of enterprise value network needs to be based on cross enterprise entity data fusion . China Academy of communications 2021 Published in 《 Data value and data element market development report 》 Three stages of data value evolution are proposed , That is, data resource 、 There are three stages of data capitalization and data capitalization . Data resourcing refers to the process of turning rich and complex original data into data with use value ; Data capitalization refers to turning data with use value into an asset , And let it circulate and trade in the market , Bring economic benefits to owners or users , Data capitalization is the key and core of constructing data factor market , Including the determination of data ownership 、 Pricing of data assets 、 Data transaction and circulation ; Data capitalization refers to data capitalization , Its fixed value is widely recognized , And used in the process of securitization and financialization . The three stages of data value are linked , Resource utilization is the foundation , Capitalization is the key , Capitalization is the goal . The key of data capitalization is whether the data elements after resource can be integrated and circulated among enterprise entities , If data resources are confined to different enterprises for a long time 、 Different industries 、 Warehouse in different regions , Then data value cannot be realized . In short , The value of data lies in fusion , The more samples and latitudes are fused, the greater the value that can be mined , Only when data is implemented across systems 、 Cross department 、 Cross enterprise 、 cross-level 、 Cross region 、 Cross industry integration , Eliminate departmental silos of data 、 Enterprise island 、 Geographical island and industrial island , In order to realize the value and marketization of data elements , Only in this way can we realize the innovative development of digital economy . The goal of the third stage of traditional enterprise blockchain construction and Application , It is to face the future era of marketization of data elements , Build a credible and safe data circulation infrastructure for enterprises .
in fact , For most traditional enterprises , The process of data value is still in the stage of data resource , And it's the primary stage . That is, data acquisition 、 Arrangement 、 polymerization 、 government 、 analysis , To make disorder 、 Chaotic raw data become orderly 、 Valuable data resource stage . The main embodiment of this stage , It is the aggregation and processing of data within the enterprise , Establish enterprise data lake , Eliminate internal data islands , Extract data value , Create or nurture more new businesses and products within the enterprise through the application of valuable data , The data production factors of the enterprise at this stage , Mainly with “ Provide for oneself ” The main mode of Supply , This is also the main reason why blockchain technology, which is good at building trust value networks across entities, is not deep and extensive in traditional enterprise application scenarios . however , With the social sectors and countries attach great importance to the digital economy , And the implementation of marketization of data elements , The process of data capitalization based on data fusion and circulation is imminent , While traditional enterprises are undergoing digital transformation , If we can't break through the supply mode of self-sufficiency of data production factors , Integrate into the market-oriented supply system of data elements of the whole society , Then the transformation work is likely to stay in the construction of digital tool platform and local innovation for a long time , Without rich and diversified data, production factors , It is impossible for enterprises to achieve breakthrough development and overall innovation in business transformation . therefore , Traditional enterprises are in the primary stage of data resource , We should also be far sighted , Make forward-looking plans for the future .
Data fusion and circulation is the future , This has become the consensus of all parties and an irreversible trend , It is also the necessity of socialized cooperation and the development of digital economy , Traditional enterprises as the main force of digital transformation and difficult households , More attention should be paid to this trend , Seize every opportunity to change cages and overtake on curves . However , The replicability and easy dissemination of the data itself , The data sharing based on Information Internet is like a runaway horse , become “ OK, no shadow , Leave no trace ”, Usage is difficult to track , Data rights and interests are difficult to protect . therefore , How to fully realize the collaborative development of data under the condition of protecting data security, so as to produce fusion value , It has become the biggest pain point in the development of big data industry , And different industries 、 Data fusion and circulation among different entities are facing insurmountable and imminent compliance pressure . In recent years , The legislative process related to data security and information protection in China is accelerating , In particular, it emphasizes the data security in the process of data application ,《 Network security law of the people's Republic of China 》《 Data security law of the people's Republic of China 》 and 《 Personal information protection law of the people's Republic of China （ The draft ）》 The top-level design of national data related legislation has been gradually improved , Notification documents of several national ministries and local governments , Both emphasize data security and personal information protection in the process of circulation . It can be seen that , The development of digital economy needs to give full play to the use value of data on the basis of protecting data security , And realize the balance between the demand of value mining and the satisfaction of compliance demand under the fusion data , It has become an urgent problem to be solved in the data circulation industry .
For now , There are still several challenges to achieve the secure and trusted flow of data across entities . First , It is the definition of data ownership , How to protect the data property rights of the data asset party , If the problem of data property rights cannot be solved , Then data sharing and circulation can only be discussed on paper , No entity is willing to share valuable data out of control . secondly , It is the problem of how to effectively integrate data and multi-party cooperation , Data flow needs to be greater 、 On a wider scale , The circulation within the scope of a small number of subjects can not form a market effect , And under the cooperation of multiple subjects , How to effectively fuse and match multi-party data , How to motivate all parties to participate in sharing , And provide high-quality standardized shared data , This is the key to the sustainability of data fusion and circulation . in addition , It is the problem of user privacy and data asset privacy protection in the process of data circulation , This is the core link in the cross entity flow of data , It is also a legal red line and policy requirement that can not be trampled on , And data privacy laws will only get tougher , If you can't solve the problem of privacy protection , Cross entity data flow may become a false proposition . Last , How to effectively price data assets , Pricing is more the result of the combination of policy guidance and market-oriented demand , It's not a technical problem . therefore , Relatively speaking , Data ownership 、 Privacy protection and wider data cooperation and sharing are the key problems to be solved urgently in data circulation and capitalization .
in fact , When the application development of blockchain technology in traditional enterprises evolves to the second stage of vertical and horizontal chain network layout , The first two challenges of data circulation , That is, data ownership and large-scale data subject cooperation , Basically solved . But data sharing at this time , More based on the circulation of plaintext data , Privacy and data sharing are still a problem in the process of compliance , Because the data sharing at this time , More based on data “ On chain authorization , Share under the chain ” The realization of pattern , The emphasis is on data sharing rather than privacy protection , Data sharing without privacy protection is also the inherent defect of blockchain technology in the era of data integration, circulation and capitalization , This defect makes it impossible for blockchain technology to be applied alone in the era of data asset circulation . therefore , Application of blockchain technology in traditional enterprises , It must face the evolution of market-oriented layout of data elements in the future , Entering the third stage , Block chain + The development stage of privacy computing convergence , Otherwise, the enterprise data application will be sealed in the data resource stage , And fall into the vicious circle of self-sufficiency of data production factors , Unable to enjoy the dividends brought by the marketization of data elements . in fact , Enterprise data application must also realize internal and external “ Double cycle ”, In the value network of social cooperation , No enterprise can develop and grow under self-sufficient factors of production , The tragedy of the closed door era should not be repeated in enterprises in the era of digital economy .
chart 7 The third stage of enterprise blockchain construction ： Data trusted and safe circulation infrastructure
In terms of the circulation of data assets , Without blockchain , The problem of confirming the right of data and the problem of data network cooperation in a wider range cannot be solved ; And without privacy Computing , Then the security and privacy protection of the data itself in the process of circulation cannot be solved ; therefore , The combination of blockchain and privacy computing , It is the best way to see the construction of large-scale data circulation network , It is also the most likely data circulation infrastructure in the future . therefore , The goal of the third stage of traditional enterprise blockchain construction , It needs to be integrated into data resource 、 Technology realization requirements involved in the three stages of capitalization and capitalization , Converged privacy computing , Trusted Collaborative Value Network Based on enterprise vertical and horizontal layout , Realize the separation of ownership and use right of enterprise data in the process of capitalization , Build the enterprise “ Available not visible ” The reliable and safe circulation and sharing mechanism of data and the era of marketization of data elements “ Data does not move and value flows ” Enterprise data sharing and exchange capability , Realize the trusted circulation and sharing of data under the protection of privacy and security , Let the data flow horizontally and freely in the large-scale value network of cross entity enterprises , Establish the freedom of enterprise data production factors 、 Security 、 Trusted circulation infrastructure . Although the current development of blockchain and privacy computing related technologies is not enough to support the large-scale realization of the goal at this stage , In particular, most traditional enterprises are still in the era of data resource , However, as a long-term architecture plan for the construction and application of blockchain Technology , To outline , Before the future .
Blockchain is a transformative technology that can change the traditional social operation mode , Although it was mainly used in the field of virtual currency and digital finance in the early stage , And there are many deficiencies in the current technical implementation , However, the advanced concept of production relations and trust economic system behind the blockchain , It is a necessary foundation in the era of digital economy . Blockchain is accelerating the construction of a new generation of value network and contract society , It is transferring the traditional contract civilization based on human trust to the mathematical civilization based on machine trust , And is based on machine trust , Refactoring to Web3 And the next generation Internet represented by the meta universe . Blockchain as the whole society “ Wide connection 、 Great collaboration ” Trust infrastructure , The future will be in the form of general infrastructure , Serve all walks of life including traditional industries , And will bring about disruptive changes that are currently unpredictable . At this stage , The application of blockchain in traditional industries is mainly based on the deposit of certificates on the chain 、 Focus on chain collaboration and value transfer , With the establishment of data as an important factor of production and the opening of data factor marketization , Data fusion and circulation under information security and privacy protection , It has also become an issue that enterprises must consider for innovation and development in the era of digital economy . The combination of blockchain and privacy computing is complementary , It not only solves the problem of data right confirmation and data network cooperation in a wider range , At the same time, it also solves the problems of security and privacy protection of data itself in the process of circulation , Let the free and reliable flow of data assets and security compliance become a reality .
however , Blockchain is not a panacea , It can't solve all kinds of problems encountered by enterprises in the process of development , Not all scenarios are suitable for blockchain Technology , Enterprises should be vigilant against all kinds of flashiness with blockchain as the slogan , You can't blockchain for blockchain . Besides , Blockchain is a technical realization to solve the problem of production relations , Don't expect a single blockchain technology to solve specific business scenario problems , Blockchain must be combined with other technologies that represent advanced productivity , With “ Blockchain +” Pattern fusion application , To form a complete solution . Blockchain construction and application of traditional enterprises , We should proceed from our own actual situation , There must be “ When he wants to be a slave , Those who want to be governed by circumstances ” The wisdom of , There will be more “ Adapt to change and seek new , Go steady and go far ” The courage of , Long-term foothold , Scientific planning . In this paper , We not only deeply analyzed and introduced the concepts related to blockchain and privacy Computing , At the same time, the construction and application of blockchain and privacy computing in traditional enterprises , The planning suggestions and construction scheme of the three-stage development path are given , However, in view of the continuous development of blockchain and privacy computing itself and the fact that large-scale applications have not been realized , Any plan or suggestion based on the current stage has a certain exploratory nature , I hope readers can learn from it , Understand the blockchain practice more suitable for yourself .
 Privacy Computing Alliance 、 Cloud University of China Academy of information technology 《 Privacy computing white paper （2021 year ）》
 《2020-2021 Research Report on the development of meta universe 》 New media research center of Tsinghua University
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