Li Zheng: will the meta universe become the mainstream development model of digital ecology in the future?

World knowledge 2022-04-03 16:49:00 阅读数:345

li zheng meta universe mainstream

Meta universe : Fantasy or trend ?

At the moment , As a phenomenal word “ Meta universe ” It is becoming a hot topic in the street , While setting off an upsurge , It also caused some controversy . One side , Some people in the industry are optimistic about the development of metauniverse . They think that , With the twin of numbers 、 Blockchain 、 Breakthroughs in technologies such as the Internet of things , The yuan universe will develop and gradually integrate into human life . On the other hand , Some media and relevant people believe that the meta universe is just “ Scientific fantasy ” nothing more . that , What is the meta universe ? How to view the opportunities and limitations of the meta universe ? Yuancosmos will be of great significance to international politics 、 What are the effects of the economy ? This issue's cover topic invites two industry scholars to write and interpret .   

—— Editor's notes

As a new Internet concept, the meta universe , It may become the mainstream development model of digital ecology in the future . Metauniverse is the integration of many cutting-edge information technologies , People try to use it to create a more immersive 、 Open digital space , So as to further promote the improvement of Internet penetration and the upgrading of digital economy . At present , American technology giants are the main promoters of the meta universe , Some countries have also carried out early research 、 Explore and layout . Although yuancosmos contains certain economic and technological potential , But it may also bring some political and social risks , Its industrial model is not yet mature and established , Therefore, we need to look at its opportunities and limitations in a balanced way .

2021 year 11 month 7 Japan , At the 4th China International Import Expo , The smart and high-end equipment exhibition area shows the naked eye 3D display technique , It is considered as a technology to realize the hardware device of the concept of meta universe .

Seek to be stable 、 The ultimate digital ecological model    

The meta universe originated from American novelist Neil · Stephenson in his 1992 Science fiction published in 《 An avalanche 》(Snow Crash) The concept of . In the novel , Human beings live together with virtual people through virtual reality devices “ Meta universe ” In the virtual space of . literally , Meta universe (Metaverse) yes “ transcend ”(Meta) And “ The universe ”(universe) The combination of the words , It means based on the real world 、 And beyond the virtual space constructed by the real world . The space is highly interconnected with the real world , With a complete value system .

2021 Since then , American technology companies began to use the term metauniverse to describe the next generation of Internet and digital ecology . In the eyes of these enterprises , Metauniverse is a super complex of various cutting-edge technologies , These technologies form a complete ecological closed loop through integration . for example , The content production of metauniverse uses artificial intelligence and digital twin Technology ( Physical products 、 A virtual copy of a process or system ), Its storage 、 The right confirmation and authentication mechanism uses blockchain technology , Its data processing uses artificial intelligence 、 Cloud computing and cloud storage technology , Its network environment depends on 5G technology , The interaction between virtual reality and reality adopts human perception 、3D Rendering 、 Expanding reality 、 Brain-machine interface (Brain Computer Interface)、 Wearable technology 、 Robotics, etc . Combined with the above cutting-edge technologies , In the metauniverse, such as social networks 、 Electronic Commerce 、 The use experience and business model of digital creativity will be much better than the current digital space , And can replace and strengthen the real space to a certain extent . future , There may also be more cutting-edge technologies absorbed for the meta universe , Continuously enhance the overall experience of the metauniverse .

Compared with the existing digital ecology , The primordial universe has the following characteristics .

First, strengthen virtual social networking . Metauniverse is the same as existing social networks , Will break the geographical 、 Environmental constraints as the fundamental direction to promote communication and cooperation between people . American technology companies believe that , Yuancosmos will be an enhanced version of the current online collaboration , Not only realize voice 、 video 、 Real time interaction of words , It also provides more interactive ways and platforms . for example , Users can use virtual reality (Virtual Reality) And augmented reality (Augmented Reality) Establish a virtual platform for the device , Access data at any time 、 Icon , Display holographic images ; Users may also rely on simulated skin 、 The digital odor manufacturing device experiences near real touch and smell .

Two is “ De centralization ”.“ De centralization ” This concept is closely linked to blockchain , It is the fundamental feature of blockchain , Blockchain system is “ Point to point ” Of , Every node is equal , There is no centralized system controller . Blockchain as a consensus mechanism ,“ De centralization ” The meaning of is that no organization or individual is responsible for the authenticity and integrity of the whole chain information . That's why , All participants reach a consensus based on trust in technology and rules , It is believed that no one can control the blockchain or tamper with the information on the blockchain . Internet sender 、 node 、 The number of relays is increasing, such as blockchain “ De centralization ” Architecture technology provides the technical foundation , The meta universe will be the first large-scale application “ De centralization ” Digital ecology of technology .“ De centralization ” It will further reduce the demand of a few technology giants for access 、 Information 、 Restrictions on personal data and Applications , So as to provide users with as many digital entries as possible . in other words , The identity of the meta universe belongs to the user , Not any centralized organization .

Third, integrate reality . Metauniverse seeks to further break the boundary between digital space and real space , Through virtual reality 、 Augmented reality and other technologies , Project digital space directly into the real world , And directly map the real world to the virtual space . All digital innovations in the meta universe will be characterized by the combination of reality and virtual , Increase users' sense of immersion , Let users finally see the meta universe as part of the real world .

Fourth, continuous evolution . The metauniverse seeks to be stable 、 The ultimate digital ecological model , Use blockchain to confirm the rights of data and intellectual property stably , Confirmed information 、 Data and assets can theoretically be preserved permanently , Beyond the cycle of technological evolution and human life span . This means digital memory in the meta universe 、 Digital twin scenes and even digital life can exist for a long time .

The above characteristics make the meta universe further human 、 Deep integration of society and digital , Create a world that contains all the values of the real world 、 And a virtual world with more convenient conditions for innovation and unlimited space . This virtual world may become a real “ The global village ”、 Provide a new space for ordinary people to share digital creative dividends .

2021 year 10 month 28 Japan , Facebook, the US social networking giant, announced , The company changed its name to Meta. The new logo at Facebook's headquarters in California attracts citizens to take photos .

Technology giants are the main drivers , Some governments are highly concerned about    

Metauniverse is in line with the development direction of today's digital economy , It provides a wide range of application scenarios for some new technologies . First , Today's global digital ecology is an important node of a new round of iterative evolution . The novel coronavirus pneumonia has accelerated the digitalization of countries. 、 The process of informatization , Telecommuting and online shopping 、 Education is becoming a mainstream model in some countries . Studies have shown that , The meta universe can further promote this trend , Improve the penetration of digital ecology and the frequency and duration of user use , Get more data resources from the real world , Improve the operation efficiency of digital economy . secondly , Metauniverse can find application scenarios for many new technologies . The virtual reality involved in the meta universe 、 Augmented reality 、 Although blockchain and other information technologies have made great progress , But no good application scenario has been found , Unable to form a complete value chain . Last , Metauniverse seeks to create a new digital innovation space , Its business and innovation potential is immeasurable . Compared with other digital ecological development directions such as the Internet of things , The innovation of the yuan universe 、 Lower barriers to participation and investment .

American technology companies believe that , The metauniverse may provide a more convenient 、 A feasible model of digital ecological evolution , some time 10 to 20 Replace the existing digital ecology . Yuancosmos will become a new growth point of digital economy and the next competitive field with strategic significance , Its development process will trigger a new round of reshuffle of the global science and technology industry . At present , American and Western technology giants are the main promoters of the meta universe ,Meta、 Ying Wei Da 、Roblox It is one of the most representative enterprises . Facebook changed its name Meta Expressed the determination to enter the meta universe , The company believes metauniverse is a great way to upgrade its social network .Meta Set up the “ Reality lab ”, Develop virtual reality and augmented reality terminals , So as to promote the application and development of the meta universe . NVIDIA is a global leader in the field of artificial intelligence chips , Its advantage lies in the application of Artificial Intelligence Computing in the field of meta universe , Greatly improve the efficiency and experience effect of meta universe construction .2021 year , NVIDIA founder Huang Renxun launched a new virtual avatar platform carrying his vision of the meta universe OmniverseAvatar. The platform may become a platform for the creation and incubation of the meta universe , Provide to the majority of digital creative companies . NVIDIA is also promoting the standard setting of the next generation of digital virtual space , To unify the physical rules of the virtual world , Realize the compatibility of metauniverse related equipment and software .Roblox Is to explore the development of the meta universe from the perspective of business model .Roblox Our business model has some characteristics of meta universe , And has a large number of users and innovators who agree with the model .Roblox It is hoped that these users and innovators can create an environment that can be continuously expanded through existing technologies 、 Develop an innovative circle , Thus, the company has become a platform giant in the meta universe era .

Some governments have also begun to pay attention to the opportunities and risks of the meta universe , Both hope to seize the strategic opportunity , And avoid potential safety hazards . In his opinion , There is a potential governance loss in the meta universe 、 Security risks and international competition . Compared with American enterprises , The US government's attitude towards the meta universe “ Stability mentality ” And “ Political vision ” More dense , Concerns about data security and vigilance against monopoly risks of industrial giants temporarily prevail .2021 year 10 month , Senators from both parties in the United States proposed 《 Government ownership and oversight of AI data act 》, It is required to supervise the data involved in the federal artificial intelligence system, especially facial recognition data , And asked the federal government to establish an artificial intelligence working group , To ensure that government contractors can responsibly use biometric data collected by AI technology . Europe is also highly cautious about the meta universe . The European Union 《 AI act 》《 The digital services act 》《 The digital market act 》 as well as “ Platform to business ” Legislation such as regulatory regulations explains the positions and tendencies that regulators may take when dealing with the metauniverse , Including increasing transparency 、 Respect the user's choice 、 Strictly protect privacy 、 Limit some high-risk applications . These legislations indicate that the EU pays more attention to the regulation and rules of the meta universe , Try to take the first mover advantage in governance and rules , To protect the European internal market . Vice president of the European Commission, vestag, said , The EU authorities need a better understanding of the Yuan Dynasty , Then it will decide how to regulate it . Some European scholars believe that , The existing laws and antitrust measures will be applied to the meta universe without dispute .

South Korea is one of the countries with the most positive attitude towards the meta universe . South Korea established a government led 、 Include 200 Many companies and institutions ( Include SK telecommunication 、 Modern cars 、 Korea Mobile Internet business association, etc ) Of “ The meta universe Alliance ”, Cooperate to explore the moral standards of the meta universe 、 Cultural innovation and technological trends , Share research results , And start joint development projects . The Seoul municipal government announced the relevant plans for establishing a meta universe public service platform , As its latest future urban planning “ Seoul vision 2030” Part of . Japan hopes to promote the preemptive development of relevant industries under the legal framework . Ministry of economy and industry of Japan 2021 year 7 Published in 《 Investigation report on the future possibilities and topics of the virtual space industry 》, Define the metauniverse as “ In a specific virtual space , Producers in various fields provide consumers with various services and contents ”. According to the report , After the threshold of virtual reality equipment is significantly reduced and virtual reality content is more attractive , The yuan universe will cross the shackles of key development , Moving towards a channel of rapid development . According to the report , The Japanese government should focus on prevention and solution “ Virtual space ” Internal legal issues , And for transnational 、 Improve the application of cross platform business laws ; The government should develop industry standards and guidelines with industry insiders , And export such specifications to the world .

Saudi Arabia and other Middle East countries regard metauniverse as a new breakthrough in economic transformation .2022 year 2 month , The Saudi government announced that it would inject capital into many yuancosmic innovation companies 64 Billion dollars . One of the innovative companies will lead the development of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the metauniverse , The country's cities “ Copy ” Into the meta universe . The Saudi Minister of information technology said , Yuancosmos will become a new growth point of Saudi Arabia's digital economy , The platform will also radiate to central and northeast Africa .

The movie 《 No. 1 player 》 posters .

The controversy continues    

The particularity of space-time background has caused continuous controversy since the birth of the meta universe . The meta universe was born in a digital economy under close scrutiny 、 Deep reflection 、 A highly politicized and secure era , Social support for the digital revolution is waning , The cognition of digital ecology in different countries is dividing . These environmental changes make the risks and challenges contained in the meta universe exposed earlier .

Safety hazards , The meta universe has many hidden dangers of information security and physical security in the current digital ecology , Among them, the hidden danger of data security is particularly prominent . Yuancosmos will still be based on the Internet and other information technology , Network security in the current information society 、 Information security 、 Data security issues will appear in the meta universe Digital Ecology . Because the metauniverse may adopt virtual reality 、 Augmented reality equipment and more advanced human-computer interaction system , This feature makes the meta universe 、 The collected data is different from people's real life 、 Deep psychology is closer to , More privacy , Therefore, its data security leakage will also bring greater risks to users .

Social impact , The social impact brought by the yuan universe is profound and long-lasting , It is still impossible to accurately estimate . The impact of the yuan universe includes political, social and personal psychology . At the political and social levels , The meta universe may become an integral part of a country's political thought and social culture , It has a subtle impact on a country's political and cultural security . The meta universe may bring about employment substitution and profound changes in social structure , And bring some new social problems . Rumors spread 、 Social relations 、 Ethics 、 Identity recognition and so on may produce greater influence and destructive power in a new form . The highly immersive experience of metauniverse may have a negative impact on the growth of teenagers , It may also be transformed into addictive “ Digital drugs ”. Extremism and terrorism can also take advantage of this “ The land outside the law ” Do whatever you want in the blank period of Management . On the personal psychological level , The immersive nature of the primordial universe , It may cause some users to immerse themselves in the meta universe for a long time , Their cognition and behavior are out of touch with people in the real world , Bring obvious intergenerational differences and contradictions and conflicts . The three dimensional 、 The all encompassing meta universe may make the original culture of real society 、 art 、 Information, etc. lose attraction . Once the meta universe causes a large number of people and part of society to completely “ Breaking away from reality into emptiness ”, Then its social impact will be incalculable .

In terms of economic order , The meta universe may form a wider range 、 Deeper 、 More difficult to detect digital monopoly . Although the meta universe has “ De centralization ” characteristic , But similar to previous cutting-edge technologies and digital ecology , The long-term evolution of the industry is very easy to finally form “ Centralization ” The giant . Early entry of the head company through scientific and technological research and development 、 Capital accumulation will gain great advantages , These monopolistic giants will then have more comprehensive information and data , And it is possible to use the advantage of manipulating innovators in the meta cosmic ecology to achieve a more hidden high monopoly . The new business model and financial innovation model produced by the meta universe are also different from the existing economy 、 There are huge differences in the financial system , It contains some financial risks that may have a systematic chain reaction .

In international competition , Metauniverse may bring fierce international competition , Cause the division of digital ecology between countries . The technical level of some countries 、 The domestic market 、 User groups 、 Digital ecology 、 The industrial chain and innovation environment are more suitable for the development of meta universe , Other countries may lag behind due to subjective factors or objective constraints . Countries with relatively backward development will be at a disadvantage when seeking access to the meta universe of leading countries . Different countries may have different views on the meta universe 、 Differences in positions and ways of regulation , Leading to the development model of digital economy 、 Emergence of digital ecology and industrial chain “ Bifurcation ”, Form a system of parallel competition . The metacosmic era is more likely to happen “ Digital cold war ”, The globalization of science and technology in today's world may be divided .

These challenges make governments need to prepare for the early regulation of the metauniverse , Promote the relevant regulatory system and international rules while developing the industry . The international community should also explore the meta universe 、 Constructive cooperation and communication , Guide this emerging field to develop in a healthy and orderly direction . The risks and hidden dangers contained in the meta universe need to be followed up .

( The author is an associate researcher of the American Institute of the Chinese Academy of modern international relations )

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