China Information Security 2022-04-03 15:38:26 阅读数:389
2021 Since then , The meta universe active in the capital market （Metaverse） Concept has become the focus of social attention . In addition to China's large Internet enterprises entering this field one after another , International social media company facebook （Facebook） Directly renamed yuan （Meta）, Let the meta universe attract more attention . As an innovative Internet Product , In addition to triggering a new wave of investment and competition in relevant markets , It also involves a wide range of social production in the future 、 Cultural life and even social management , It will also promote cross regional digital communication 、 Network security and even sovereignty issues have an impact , Attention should be paid .
One 、 The basic connotation of the yuan universe
It is generally believed ,“ Meta universe ” The word originated from 1992 American science fiction writer Neil · Stephenson （Neal Stephenson） In his novel 《 An avalanche 》（Snow Crash） A method based on network technology and human-computer interaction technology is described in 、 Cyberspace parallel to the real world .
From the basic definition , There is no unified concept about the technical characteristics or organizational structure of the meta universe in related fields , The existing expressions are mainly functional descriptions . Look from the name , The Chinese expression of Yuan universe is very exquisite .“ element ” Represents the beginning 、 Origination and infinite imagination ;“ The universe ” It implies the all inclusive ultimate state of the relevant system in the future . This is very attractive 、 The imaginative expression is combined with the primitive concept of the meta universe , It can greatly attract the attention of the public , It can even bring some misleading effects （ Such as exaggerated publicity 、 Blind investment and even fraud ）. Start with this , More and more literary works imagine and supplement this concept . In literary imagination , People can for a long time 、 Immersive activity in the cyberspace , Beyond the material and regulatory limits of the real world , Gain great freedom and satisfaction .
In recent years , Data information processing technology 、 Data information storage technology 、 Network access and human-computer interaction technology continue to mature , Imaginary “ Virtual parallel world ” It has gradually become a realistic possibility , And become the key direction of technological development and industrial investment . Grasp the basic connotation of the meta universe , The following three aspects deserve attention .
First of all , Although the universe has great space for development , However, at present, the publicity effect and capital heat of relevant products are far greater than the actual technology and market influence . at present , The products under the banner of meta universe are no different from a large-scale online game , There is still a long distance from the true meta universe . Under reasonable expectations , Investment or operation investment of large Internet enterprises at home and abroad , It will only add more social functions on the basis of the game , Far from the all encompassing universe . Can be judged , In a short time , The metauniverse is mainly involved in games 、 Product competitiveness and market acceptance in social and other fields —— Can this imaginative new product really develop into a subversive new way of life , There is still a lot of uncertainty .
second , From the basic structure , The metauniverse will at least be divided into “ Centralization ” and “ De centralization ” Two structures . In reality , The meta universe products of decentralized architecture are mainly based on “ The etheric fang ” Derivatives of blockchain digital currency , It only has the function of capital speculation . The meta universe with development potential focuses on “ Centralization ” framework , And this centralization attribute is natural , There will be no fundamental change . To determine the , In the future ideal state of the meta universe , There must also be one with the highest authority 、 The most authoritative “ Administrators ”. This centralized architecture will inevitably lead to a series of problems . most important of all , Who is qualified to cover the vast majority of the social population in the future 、 Occupy most of people's digital life time 、 Even undertake important production activities “ The center of the meta universe ”？ It's development 、 An enterprise that operates metauniverse , It is the capital force behind the enterprise , The will of all members of the deliberative body is a kind of intelligence on the surface of the universe , A certain level of government regulation is still in the real world , There is no conclusive conclusion at present . Although the current meta universe mainly exists in the field of entertainment and has not become the mainstream way of entertainment , But in the future, the ideal meta universe will produce very different economic and social values , The change of value increment or value distribution , Continuous observation is also needed .
Third , Yuan universe will also greatly blur the boundaries between online and offline of the whole society . Predictably, , With virtual reality 、 The wide application of augmented reality and other technologies “ All things connected ” The gradual construction of society , It will be more and more natural for the public to be online or online 、 More and more frequently , Even gradually form “24 Hour online ” The state of . This immersive online life , Will truly make the meta universe an integral part of human society , And eliminate to a large extent “ Completely offline ” Production and living environment . therefore ,“ Parallel world ” perhaps “ virtual world ” It is only a relatively primary concept of literary and artistic creation , But with the development and application of related technologies , Will be revised step by step ：“ Meta universe ” It is not an imaginary parallel or alternative relationship with the real world , It is embodied in the comprehensive digitization of the real society 、 Network transformation , Gradually transform the whole society into every individual natural person 、 infrastructure 、 All kinds of equipment 、 New environment for organizations to be online anytime, anywhere .
Two 、 The development trend of the yuan universe
The meta universe is both ideal , It's also realistic . The ideal meta universe may enable the human spirit to obtain great freedom and satisfaction （ Get rid of the restrictions of material and physical rules ）、 Bring great space for creation and innovation , Even parallel to real life “ Digital life ”, But this vision cannot be separated from the support of the material world . Judge the development trend and potential impact of the meta universe , It should also be based on the real material world .
First of all , In terms of material basis , Metauniverse related industries will rely more on modern information technology , And affected by the realistic supply chain stability and market policy . China's meta universe related industries, especially in hardware equipment design and production 、 Data information dissemination and storage 、 The construction and integration of application ecosystem , Facing the interference of various market and non market factors . This is because , Under the realistic conditions at home and abroad ,“ The world is the same ” The meta universe is just a fantasy . As the material basis of the meta universe , Whether it's Extraterritorial sanctions on chip design and manufacturing or suspension of Supply , Incompatibility in technical standards or external market resistance in application Ecology , Even with “ National security ” Unfair market environment as an excuse , Will become a major obstacle to the development of related industries .
second , In terms of application prospects , Metauniverse is bound to surpass online games 、 Online social or private life , There are more and more intersections with social production and even social management , Form a digital transformation at the level of the whole society . Novel coronavirus pneumonia continues to cause epidemic “ On-line ” It has become a common choice for major countries and regions in the world to take into account social distance and social production needs . Especially under the promotion of the efficiency advantage brought by digitization ,“ Online office ” Become an important part of social public network activities . It's becoming more and more convenient 、 With the support of efficient and comfortable information technology , The convenience of people accessing the network 、 Frequency and online time will be greatly improved , Offline life time is compressed . In the future, the ideal meta universe will not only provide more exciting and free virtual experience , It will also produce in society 、 Provide more convenient conditions for social management and occupy the offline proportion of these activities . When meta universe related applications from entertainment 、 When social and other private life extends to the field of social production and practice , It will bring new problems of benefit distribution .
Third , In terms of social impact , The meta universe is likely to become a future social sense 、 Fermentation and venting of emotions , And feed back to the real society . The important technical feature of metauniverse is immersive user experience . Although the related technology is still in the development stage , But a fully immersive user experience is not an illusion . At the time , The public will use a lot of meta cosmic tools to express their emotions 、 Interest demands , Seek the satisfaction of personal spiritual needs in the meta universe . In the foreseeable future , Between the universe and the real world is by no means Neil · Stephenson imagined “ Parallel world ” Relationship , And will be highly integrated with each other , People's perception in the meta universe 、 Emotions and interest demands will inevitably be fed back to reality . such “ Network communication — Realistic feedback ” Frequency of occurrence 、 Strength and areas involved , Will be far more than sharing files now 、 Information dissemination modes such as publishing information or group communication .
Fourth , Under more forward-looking observation , In the future, there will be competition between different meta universes . This kind of competition may arise between different meta universe operators in the same market , It can also happen in “ Chinese metauniverse ” And “ Other countries outside the region / Regional meta universe ” Between , In extreme cases, it will even reflect “ Meta universe controller ” Competition with social autonomy or public power . The mode and content of competition also surpass the market or economic level , Become the competition of production and life style 、 Ideological competition and even national cultural competition 、 The possibility of safe competition .
3、 ... and 、 Potential risks and Countermeasures of the meta universe
Metauniverse is the focus of current technology R & D and market investment , It is also the production of the whole society from a long-term perspective 、 The picture of lifestyle change . In correspondence with , The universe itself as a product of new technology , And the technology development behind it 、 Industrial agglomeration and social application , It will inevitably be accompanied by various risks , Need to be addressed .
（ One ） Security risks in practical applications
From a realistic point of view , The technical attribute and application mode of the meta universe must be highly digital and Networked . This means that the data information gathered by the meta universe will also far exceed other current network products or services . Data information as the core of the information age “ oil ”, Its importance is self-evident , Relevant market competition and even international competition will naturally extend to the whole chain of meta universe industry . To be specific , There are four aspects of the security risks in the real application of Yuanzhou universe .
First of all , Personal information risk .2021 year 11 month 1 Japan , China has officially implemented 《 Personal information protection law 》, It reflects the impact of personal information protection system on big data 、 The latest response to new technologies such as artificial intelligence . In this highly centralized metauniverse 、 Internal interconnection and external closure , And in the future, it is expected to cover the important applications of most social individuals and social activities , The effectiveness of the current system remains to be observed . In the metauniverse 、 Comprehensive device interconnection and digital record of personal behavior 、 communication , Will be based on “ Knowing — agree! ”“ notice — Delete ” And the logic of personal information protection and use of the rules of contract law . in other words , More extensive and efficient use of data information represents “ Efficiency needs ” And personal information protection “ Security requirements ” The contradiction between them will become more prominent .
second , Risk of complete industrial chain . Different from current online games or social media , The operation and development of the real meta universe in the future highly depend on stability 、 Sustainable supply of information technology software and hardware products and open application ecosystem . The present , The integrity of the global information technology industry chain faces various threats , The digital application ecosystem is far less open than originally expected , There was no obvious improvement trend . In this reality , China's meta universe related industries are in the initial stage of development , That is, we should guard against potential risks such as hardware disconnection or software resistance .
Third , New network and data security risks . Yuancosmos has broad application prospects , Connect with a variety of hardware devices , It also faces huge data processing 、 Exchange requirements , This puts forward new challenges for the relevant network security . Especially in the framework of metacosmic centralization , Yes “ center ” The safety protection of is more important . Regarding this , More stringent identity management and authority control mechanisms should be designed for the metauniverse . This is because considering the necessity of operating the meta universe, it is an institution with strong strength , Its system “ Shell ” It should be strong enough , But for the sake of improving operation efficiency , The security verification inside the system will be relatively loose . From the increasingly prominent new network attack mode in recent years, we can see , The way to defraud legal identity and exercise the authority of this identity to spread malicious code , The damage to large-scale information systems is particularly serious . therefore , Facing the real and potential network threats , At least the management should be strengthened from the perspective of identity and authority management . in addition , The highly centralized structure of the meta universe also determines , once “ center ” There is a safety accident , Will bring systemic 、 Overall crisis , This also affects the isolation capability of relevant networks 、 Higher requirements for backup capability . New technologies are bound to face new security challenges , It also gave birth to a zero trust network 、 New security concepts and measures such as artificial intelligence firewall , The attack and defense between each other will not stop in a short time . As a whole , New network risks faced by the metauniverse , More resources are really needed to deal with .
Fourth , Broad competitive risks . From the perspective of excessive competition , Whether relevant operators increase user stickiness by illegal means 、 Hinder users “ Trans universe ” transfer 、 Excessive collection and use of user information , Or slander other operators 、 Hinder, etc , Compared with the conventional risk of unfair competition, there is no essential difference . however , The potential meta cosmic monopoly risk has certain particularity ： If one day in the future “ Meta universe ” The content is rich enough , Then it will in fact form restrictions across the relevant market scope 、 Form a super organization with both dominant market forces and social forces for large-scale mixed operation . It is the undisputed center within its own meta cosmic product , Outside the meta universe, it will also gain a dominant position far beyond ordinary operators and even close to social managers . In this case , The meta universe controller will almost break through the current （ And... Under consideration and revision ）《 Antitrust 》 And other relevant regulations 、 Prevent the abuse of market dominance and all other core norms , Have a major impact on anti-monopoly law enforcement .
（ Two ） New challenges from a long-term perspective
In Technological Development 、 Besides practical problems such as industrial perfection and competition , The broad application of the meta universe also suggests potential risks in the future . This long-term challenge goes beyond the actual technical or industrial constraints to a certain extent , And more macro . This macro challenge , It will determine the ecology of meta cosmic products or services in China and even in the world , It is also noteworthy .
First of all , The future meta universe will face challenges of cross regional exchanges and cooperation . Different countries 、 There is communication between regional metauniverses or similar network entities 、 Cooperation and competition . The meta universe is not divorced from the material basis or basic rules of the real world “ Parallel space ”, But a new real world after technological upgrading , Also affected by the reality of national sovereignty 、 Bound by national codes of conduct and rules of international exchanges . Different from the current countries 、 Network connectivity between regions is similar , Information exchange between different meta universes in the future 、 Cooperation and competition will not disappear . and , The scale of data exchange at that time 、 Sensitivity 、 The potential impact and even security threats will far exceed the current level of Internet or cross regional network applications . How to communicate between trans regional metauniverses 、 How to deal with the flow of people and data 、 How to deal with the distribution of economic and social interests , Will be an important issue in front of China and other administrative subjects in the world .
second , Metacosmic technological power 、 The power of capital will bring challenges to the basic social system , Prevent disorderly expansion of capital . The meta universe originated from the development of technology 、 Capital investment and market operation , Through the stage of free development , In the future, it will go beyond the scope of economy 、 Become a social phenomenon , Even become a basic part of society . The controller of the future meta universe , Whether as a representative of huge economic interests or other dominant forces , Should not be divorced from the will of the state and the management of the basic social order . Regarding this , Design of relevant market internal rules 、 The internal restriction and external regulation of yuancosmic's own operation , We should also attach great importance to it . At present , The influence of large Internet enterprises has long exceeded the scope of the market , It has aroused vigilance among the world's major economies , And it is mainly restrained under the framework of antitrust . however , It is doubtful whether the current anti-monopoly system can deal with the problems related to the rapidly developing and changing meta universe , Moreover, early intervention or too radical anti-monopoly law enforcement will cause unnecessary impact on investment and innovation 、 Unreasonable harm . The way of relevant governance activities 、 opportunity 、 Scale and effect evaluation , It also needs to attract prospective attention and Research .
（ 3、 ... and ） China's Countermeasures
At present , The publicity effect and capital heat of meta universe related products are far greater than the actual technology and market influence , There are still too many uncertainties in the future development . Facing the potential challenges of the meta universe , China should deal with both practical risks and long-term challenges .
In dealing with real risks , China should plan relevant infrastructure and digital ecological industries from the perspective of complete industrial chain and safety . It is necessary to analyze and predict the technical route of the meta universe , stay 5G signal communication 、 fictitious / Augmented reality 、 The basic technical fields such as implantable networking equipment shall be selected 、 Reliable technical facilities , With the standard of autonomy 、 Independent intellectual property rights to build software ecology . China should plan the boundary of the meta universe from the perspective of market competition , Prevent improper expansion of capital . Antitrust law enforcement agencies and theoretical researchers pay attention to relevant issues in advance 、 Make theoretical and institutional preparations , From capital 、 Prevention of related risks at the basic level of technology and data information concentration , Improve the development efficiency of the whole industry 、 Guard against the dominance of one family . China should formulate basic rules in the field of meta universe from the perspective of data and information security . The cutting-edge system design will help to standardize the development of relevant industries in China 、 Enhance China's weight in the international discourse system in relevant fields . meanwhile , China should also pay attention to the systematicness brought by security incidents under the centralized framework 、 Overall risk , This also puts forward higher requirements for the safety risk identification and response ability of relevant systems .
In dealing with long-term challenges , China should guard against the impact of the meta universe on China's network sovereignty in advance . Predictably, , There must be more than one meta universe product or platform in the future world , They are exchanging data with each other 、 Sensitivity 、 The potential impact and even the potential threat contained in security will far exceed the current level of Internet or cross regional network application . The present , Barbados and other countries have tried to open embassies in extraterritorial meta universe products 、 Exercise national sovereignty , International communication and competition under the network virtual environment are bound to face new environment and challenges . In this virtual environment, which is detached from the real international political environment to a certain extent , Predictably, , Various illegal organizations 、 The provocation and harassment of personnel against our institutions and personnel will be more rampant . therefore , Under the basic position of recognizing and safeguarding China's network sovereignty , Accelerate the construction of industrial chain, stable and reliable , System security 、 Open meta universe , keep “ China's meta universe ” And “ Extraterritorial meta universe ” Normal communication and competition , It is for China to safeguard its sovereignty and security interests on a global scale , blow “ Taiwan independence ” Or other illegal organizations 、 An important way of human activity space .
（ This article is published in 《 China's information security 》 The magazine 2022 In the first 1 period ）
writing │ Lecturer, School of law, Wuhan University 、 Assistant researcher, Institute of network governance, Wuhan University Wang Defu
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