What the hell is "blockchain"

xiangzhihong8 2021-11-23 21:56:43 阅读数:813

hell blockchain

Blockchain has been popular recently , What the hell is a blockchain , Why haven't you heard of it before , But say something you must have heard - The currency , In the past, blockchain was used on bitcoin , Until the last six months , Blockchain has gradually begun to have some other applications , Especially in finance . So what is a blockchain ? What does he have to do with bitcoin ? I've sorted out what I said before today , In general, I can understand what blockchain is .

Application of blockchain in bitcoin

Bitcoin peer-to-peer network stores all transaction history in “ Blockchain ”(blockchain) in . The blockchain continues to extend , And once new blocks are added to the blockchain , It won't be removed again . A blockchain is actually a group of scattered client nodes , And a distributed database composed of all participants , It is a record of all bitcoin transaction history . Bitcoin transaction data is packaged into a “ Data blocks ” or “ block ”(block) In the after , Even if the transaction is preliminarily confirmed . When a block is linked to the previous block , The trade will be further confirmed .

ask : What is a blockchain ?

answer : Blockchain (Blockchain) It refers to the technical solution to collectively maintain a reliable database through centralization and distrust .

ask : Can you explain what blockchain is ?

answer : to put it bluntly , Blockchain technology refers to a way for the whole people to participate in bookkeeping . All systems have a database behind them , You can think of a database as a big ledger . So it's very important who keeps this account book . At present, it is whose system will keep accounts , The account book of wechat is Tencent's record , Taobao's account book is Ali's . But now in the blockchain system , Everyone in the system has the opportunity to participate in bookkeeping . If there is any data change in a certain period of time , Everyone in the system can do bookkeeping , The system will judge the fastest and best bookkeeper in this period of time , Write his records in the books , And send the account book content to all other people in the system for backup during this period . So everyone in the system has a complete ledger . This way, , We call it blockchain Technology .

ask : What are the advantages of such a blockchain with nationwide bookkeeping ?

answer : You can find , It's at the expense of a little bit of efficiency , Get a lot of security . First of all, there is no big central ledger , So it's impossible to destroy . Every node is just a part of the system , Each node has equal rights , As like as two peas . Destroying some nodes has no effect on the system at all . secondly , You can't cheat , Because unless you can control most people's computers in the system to make changes , Otherwise, the system will refer to the opinions of the majority to decide what is the real result , It turns out that there's no point in changing your books ( Because people don't admit it ). secondly , Because there is no centralized intermediary , Let everything run automatically through a preset program , Not only can it greatly reduce costs , It can also improve efficiency . And because everyone has the same ledger , To ensure that the accounting process is open and transparent .

ask : Has blockchain solved any problems ?

answer : The most important thing of blockchain is to solve the problem of intermediary credit . in the past , It's hard for two people who don't know and trust each other to work together , We have to rely on a third party . For example, payment behavior , In the past, any kind of transfer , There must be institutions such as banks or Alipay . But through blockchain Technology , Bitcoin is the first time that human beings have realized it without any intermediary , Complete the transfer behavior that both sides can trust each other . This is a major breakthrough in blockchain .

ask : Is blockchain bitcoin ? Or is bitcoin a blockchain ?

answer : Blockchain technology is the underlying technology of bitcoin , In the early days, not many people noticed the underlying technology of bitcoin . But when bitcoin is not operated and managed by any centralized organization , Very stable operation for many years , And there were no problems . So a lot of people have noticed , The underlying technology may have a big mechanism , And not just in bitcoin , Maybe it can be applied in many fields . So we abstracted bitcoin Technology , It's called blockchain technology , Or distributed ledger Technology . So from a certain point of view , Bitcoin can be seen as the first application of blockchain , And blockchain is more like TCP/IP Such underlying technology , It will expand to more and more industries in the future .

ask : Which industries can blockchain technology be used in ?

answer : The main advantage of blockchain is that it doesn't need intermediary participation 、 The process is efficient, transparent and low cost 、 Data is highly secure . So if any industry with any demand in these three aspects has the opportunity to use blockchain Technology .

ask : Why should the financial sector use blockchain Technology ? What are the substantial benefits ?

answer : The main advantages of blockchain technology in the financial field are disintermediation and cost reduction .

First of all, the financial industry is currently facing the problem of preventing single point of failure and systemic risk , We need to carry out layer upon layer audit to control financial risks , But it also creates high internal costs . And because of the increasing number of regulations , especially 2008 As a result of the financial crisis in, the threshold of financial control has been rising , The scope of anti money laundering and anti-terrorism financing caused by the war on terrorism has gradually expanded the scope and depth of supervision , This has led to a sharp increase in regulatory costs across the financial system . under these circumstances , Blockchain technology can greatly reduce the cost of a real financial system through tamper proof and high transparency . According to a report released by Santander, Spain's largest bank ,2020 If blockchain technology is used in banks all over the world around the year , Maybe every year 200 Billion dollars in costs . That's enough to say “ Blockchain ” Great changes and breakthroughs brought to the traditional financial field .

Besides, for historical reasons , As a result, traditional financial institutions rely on the central clearing house for settlement and settlement , The problem is inefficiency . The traditional cross-border settlement is because it has to go through something like SWIFT Such institutions , Therefore, cross-border wire transfers are usually calculated by day . But when bitcoin uses blockchain Technology , In the absence of a centralized operator , It's been running perfectly for seven years , It can not only realize real-time settlement and clearing , And there has been no accounting error . therefore , If all financial systems can achieve decentralized real-time settlement and clearing , Not only will it greatly improve the efficiency of global finance , And it can change the pattern of global finance .

ask : What bitcoin says “ dig ”?

answer : In bitcoin “ dig ” Actually, it's the process of bookkeeping , Bitcoin uses a method called “ Proof of workload (Proof of Work,PoW)” The mechanism of , The system is trying to find out who has more computing power , One math problem at a time , Only the computer that can work out the problem the fastest can keep accounts . And the computer that grabs the right to account gets 25 A bitcoin reward . This behavior is often called “ dig ”, Think of bitcoin as a reward for mining success .

ask : Do all blockchains need mining ?

answer : Not all blockchain projects will adopt something like bitcoin “ Proof of workload ” The way , This is more in the early blockchain projects . If other proof mechanisms are adopted , Such as “ Proof of interest (Proof of Stake,PoS)”、“ Share authorization certification mechanism (DPoS,Delegate Proof of Stake)” There is no need to adopt such a mining method .

ask : What's the relationship between blockchain and big data ? Blockchain will replace Big Data ?

answer : The relationship between blockchain and big data is not very big . Big data is mainly for the management of massive data , The core of blockchain is to achieve high security and high reliability of data without centralized mediation . So blockchain and big data don't conflict with each other , And it won't replace , It's totally different solutions for data in different scenarios .

ask : What's the relationship between blockchain and cloud computing cloud storage ? Is blockchain cloud computing or cloud storage ?

answer : Cloud computing is usually defined as providing dynamic, scalable and often virtualized resources through the Internet , But it is often a centralized organization that provides cloud computing platform . The network composed of blockchain generally has no specific organization , So blockchain is closer to the definition of distributed computing system , It belongs to a kind of distributed computing . however , Blockchain can realize cloud storage , Different from the centralized cloud storage space at present , Some blockchains provide decentralized cloud storage solutions . Such projects include Storj,Sia,Maidsafe.

ask : Is blockchain software ? What program is it written in ?

answer : Blockchain is not a specific kind of software , It's like “ database ” The three words have the same meaning , It's a design idea for a specific technology . It can be implemented in most languages , And there are many ways to achieve it . And blockchain technology is still in rapid development , Relatively speaking , At present, the design idea of blockchain technology is relatively simple , Maybe it will become more complicated in the future .

ask : What is the public chain ? What is a private chain ? What is the alliance chain ?

answer : Any node of the public chain is open to anyone , Everyone can participate in this blockchain and participate in Computing , And anyone can download the complete blockchain data ( All the books ). But in some application scenarios of blockchain , I don't want anyone involved in this system , Anyone can see all the data , Only licensed nodes can participate and view all data . So this kind of blockchain structure is called private chain . Alliance chain means that the permissions of each participating node are completely equal , We can achieve the trusted exchange of data without complete mutual trust ,R3 What the bank blockchain alliance will build is a typical alliance chain . But with the rapid development of blockchain Technology , Do not rule out after the public chain and private chain boundaries will become more fuzzy . Because each node can have more complex read and write permissions , Maybe nodes with partial permissions will be developed to everyone , However, some nodes with accounting or core permissions can only be opened to licensed nodes , It will no longer be a pure public or private chain .

ask : At present, the main problems in the development of blockchain Technology ?

answer : At present, blockchain technology is still in a very early stage , Not only has it not yet formed a unified technical standard , And various technical solutions are still developing rapidly . But it used to be thought that the system based on blockchain technology would be very resource intensive ( Similar to bitcoin ), Or blockchain technology system processing data is limited and other issues have been technically breakthrough . however , For the scalability of blockchain Technology , It has not been tested by large-scale practice , And now it's mainly in the prototype design stage . If quantitative analysis is not available , The practical benefits that blockchain technology can bring us , Including the money saved and the value created , Then the financial industry will remain relatively cautious in the short term . After all , At present, the global financial infrastructure investment has exceeded trillions , To establish a new financial architecture and underlying operating system, it needs to be supported by actual data . In the case that the existing technology has not been deployed and the use case has not been obtained , It is difficult to determine the total amount that can be saved . So far , There is still a big question , It's just how much money is needed to build a strong enough blockchain to handle the platform , The trillions of dollars that the capital market ecosystem needs to face every day .

In addition, the blockchain industry is extremely short of talents , Lack of a lot of knowledge about blockchain Technology , Also know many aspects of financial talents , The market is desperately looking for talent to connect the two worlds , Need to be able to be in the real world , The blockchain technology can be realized in the capital market , And achieve better functionality . We need to build a new system based on blockchain technology , It is necessary to have such cross-border talents .

ask : What is a smart contract ?

answer : Smart contract is a kind of contract that uses computer language instead of legal language to record terms . Smart contracts can be executed automatically by a computing system . If blockchain is a database , Smart contract is the application layer that can make blockchain technology applied to reality . The contract in the traditional sense has no direct connection with the computer code that carries out the content of the contract . Paper contracts are mostly filed , And the software will execute the contract terms written in computer code . The potential benefits of smart contracts include reduced contract signing 、 The cost of enforcement and regulation ; therefore , For many contracts related to low value transactions , It's a huge reduction in labor costs .

ask : How to use smart contracts ?

answer : If the central bank can issue legal money through blockchain , Then we can also use smart contract technology , Embedding code into the act of issuing legal money , Then this part of the coin can be called “ Programmable currency ”. such as , If the Central Bank specifies that a certain amount of funds should be distributed to agriculture related accounts , Then you can write this part of the funds into the corresponding program , It is specified that this part of funds can only be entered into agricultural related accounts , Then this part of the funds can not be misappropriated to other accounts under any circumstances . If most of the money becomes “ Programmable currency ”, So we can imagine , The financial environment they make up becomes “ Programmable Finance ”.

ask : What does blockchain have to do with ordinary people ?

answer : Basically it doesn't matter , Unless you're ready to start a business . Just like TCP/IP The relationship between agreements and ordinary people , Ordinary people don't need to know what's at the bottom of the Internet TCP/IP agreement , Just enjoy the services provided by the Internet .

ask : Whether blockchain projects must have some kind of currency ?

answer : No . Bitcoin itself is a payment system , So it needs to have a value measurement tool , So there must be bitcoin appear . Besides , In order to reward more people who are willing to contribute their computers to provide computing for the system , So there needs to be bitcoin To reward . And in some private chain systems , You can design specialized assets to trade , And every node must participate in the calculation , It's their responsibility and their right , So there's no need to think about encouraging them to participate by rewarding them , Therefore, in such a system, it may no longer be necessary to design the existence of some kind of currency .

ask : Is bitcoin legal now ?

answer : Bitcoin is in the major world powers , Including China has always been completely legal . Because of the misleading of some bad media , Many people think that China has declared bitcoin illegal . in fact , according to 2013 year 12 month 5 Japan , The notice on preventing bitcoin risks issued by the people's Bank of China and other five ministries and commissions clearly stipulates that , Bitcoin is a specific virtual commodity , Ordinary people have the freedom to participate at their own risk . And all kinds of financial institutions and Payment institutions are not allowed to carry out bitcoin related financial services , Or bitcoin as an investment target .

Bitcoin is the unit of currency in Germany , In the United States, it's defined as commodities . The European Court of justice considers bitcoin as a means of payment , No value added tax .

ask :XX Can money be invested ? Is it a blockchain project ? Is it MLM ?

answer : At present, all digital currencies, including bitcoin, have high risks , Blockchain technology itself is just in its infancy , All blockchain projects also have very high risks . No ordinary person is recommended to invest in any digital currency and blockchain related projects . And digital currency and blockchain have a certain technical threshold , Ordinary people can't tell which projects are real , Which are MLM projects . So ordinary people suggest not to invest in any of these projects . For any project that you can't tell if it's MLM , Please regard it as a pyramid selling project directly .

ask : How to invest in blockchain ?

answer : Most blockchains are in their infancy , And mostly overseas , There are very few good blockchain projects in China , Therefore, it is not recommended that any non professionals invest in blockchain projects . If you're interested in blockchain Technology , I have a technical or financial background , It is suggested to consider starting a business in this area .

ask : Blockchain / Who invented bitcoin ? Is Nakamoto Japanese ? Is it a conspiracy of the US government ?

answer : Bitcoin is a company that calls itself “ Nakamoto ” Created by a group of people or people , And at the beginning of the bitcoin project, it was completely out of the project .“ Nakamoto ” It's very unlikely to be Japanese , Because he can infer from his past emails , He should be a native English speaker .

In addition, bitcoin creators have no influence on the current bitcoin project , So it's unlikely to be the product of a conspiracy . No matter what “ Nakamoto ” Whether or not there will be , Or being wiped out physically doesn't have much impact on the bitcoin .

ask : Bitcoin and Q What's the difference between coins ?

answer :Q Currency is a centralized electronic currency , Including the total amount , The way of distribution is controlled by Tencent . And the total amount of bitcoin , The distribution mode is preset by the program and encryption algorithm , Running on multiple nodes around the world , No one or organization can modify , Not controlled by any single person or institution . It's called Q Money is electronic money , Or corporate tokens . Call bitcoin digital currency or cryptocurrency .

ask : Is there a limit to the total amount of bitcoin ? How is it distributed ?

answer : As I said before , Miners have a chance to get a reward for competing for the right to keep accounts . In the beginning, it was every 10 The minute system rewards the fastest and best bookkeepers 50 Bitcoin , Then this 50 Half every four years , Almost 2140 There won't be any new bitcoin in 2010 , Will reach 2100 The upper limit of 10000 . After this , A transaction fee will be used to reward miners .

ask :so, What the hell is a blockchain ?

answer :Blockchain It is a technical solution to collectively maintain the reliability of a data book by means of decentralization and trust . The scheme needs any number of nodes in the participating system , Through a series of data blocks associated using cryptographic methods (block) Each data contains all information exchange data of the system in a certain period of time , The data fingerprint is generated to verify the validity of its information and link to the next database block .

ask : How to establish stranger trust mechanism ?

answer : Technically speaking , It is a distributed storage block , Each block will contain the information of a whole blockchain . This determines that the blockchain can operate without a trusted third party , Self incriminating , Abu , Prove yourself ! Solve the problem of how to establish trust mechanism between two strangers . In real life , To solve the trust between strangers , First, we have to solve the characteristics of information or contract , This refers to some agreements that the blockchain must abide by :

Extract at any time —— Decentralization features
Don't falsify —— Collective maintenance and supervision
Irrevocably —— Open source and anonymity
Verifiability —— Separable data storage

First , Because the whole network has no central ruler . The system relies on the fairness constraints of multiple participants on the network , Therefore, the rights and obligations of any several nodes are equal , Moreover, each node will store all data on the blockchain . Even if the node is damaged or attacked , Still no threat to the books .

secondly , Make sure that information or contracts cannot be forged . The account book is in the hands of someone or several people , The possibility of counterfeiting is very high , But everyone has an account book , Unless you convince the whole game to surpass 51% People change an account , Otherwise, your tampering will be invalid ,

Again , The information on the blockchain must be irrevocable , Don't destroy at will . Bitcoin's system is open source , The whole system must be open and transparent , Therefore, after a transaction is broadcast all over the network , achieve 6 More than one confirmation will be recorded successfully , Irreversible and irrevocable . So the money you call out , Even if it turns out that the address is wrong , You want to pull back , It's not feasible .

Blockchain information must be verifiable . I can determine whether your record is true or forged through information extraction .

This also answers a question about trust from netizens before .

The attachment : Zhou Xiaochuan talks about the digitization of RMB

            Application of blockchain technology in financial system

              The second revolution of blockchain in the financial field

              Check the consistency between blockchain and distributed system

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