xiangzhihong8 2021-11-23 21:56:43 阅读数:813
Blockchain has been popular recently , What the hell is a blockchain , Why haven't you heard of it before , But say something you must have heard - The currency , In the past, blockchain was used on bitcoin , Until the last six months , Blockchain has gradually begun to have some other applications , Especially in finance . So what is a blockchain ？ What does he have to do with bitcoin ？ I've sorted out what I said before today , In general, I can understand what blockchain is .
Bitcoin peer-to-peer network stores all transaction history in “ Blockchain ”（blockchain） in . The blockchain continues to extend , And once new blocks are added to the blockchain , It won't be removed again . A blockchain is actually a group of scattered client nodes , And a distributed database composed of all participants , It is a record of all bitcoin transaction history . Bitcoin transaction data is packaged into a “ Data blocks ” or “ block ”（block） In the after , Even if the transaction is preliminarily confirmed . When a block is linked to the previous block , The trade will be further confirmed .
ask ： What is a blockchain ？
answer ： Blockchain （Blockchain） It refers to the technical solution to collectively maintain a reliable database through centralization and distrust .
ask ： Can you explain what blockchain is ？
answer ： to put it bluntly , Blockchain technology refers to a way for the whole people to participate in bookkeeping . All systems have a database behind them , You can think of a database as a big ledger . So it's very important who keeps this account book . At present, it is whose system will keep accounts , The account book of wechat is Tencent's record , Taobao's account book is Ali's . But now in the blockchain system , Everyone in the system has the opportunity to participate in bookkeeping . If there is any data change in a certain period of time , Everyone in the system can do bookkeeping , The system will judge the fastest and best bookkeeper in this period of time , Write his records in the books , And send the account book content to all other people in the system for backup during this period . So everyone in the system has a complete ledger . This way, , We call it blockchain Technology .
ask ： What are the advantages of such a blockchain with nationwide bookkeeping ？
answer ： You can find , It's at the expense of a little bit of efficiency , Get a lot of security . First of all, there is no big central ledger , So it's impossible to destroy . Every node is just a part of the system , Each node has equal rights , As like as two peas . Destroying some nodes has no effect on the system at all . secondly , You can't cheat , Because unless you can control most people's computers in the system to make changes , Otherwise, the system will refer to the opinions of the majority to decide what is the real result , It turns out that there's no point in changing your books （ Because people don't admit it ）. secondly , Because there is no centralized intermediary , Let everything run automatically through a preset program , Not only can it greatly reduce costs , It can also improve efficiency . And because everyone has the same ledger , To ensure that the accounting process is open and transparent .
ask ： Has blockchain solved any problems ？
answer ： The most important thing of blockchain is to solve the problem of intermediary credit . in the past , It's hard for two people who don't know and trust each other to work together , We have to rely on a third party . For example, payment behavior , In the past, any kind of transfer , There must be institutions such as banks or Alipay . But through blockchain Technology , Bitcoin is the first time that human beings have realized it without any intermediary , Complete the transfer behavior that both sides can trust each other . This is a major breakthrough in blockchain .
ask ： Is blockchain bitcoin ？ Or is bitcoin a blockchain ？
answer ： Blockchain technology is the underlying technology of bitcoin , In the early days, not many people noticed the underlying technology of bitcoin . But when bitcoin is not operated and managed by any centralized organization , Very stable operation for many years , And there were no problems . So a lot of people have noticed , The underlying technology may have a big mechanism , And not just in bitcoin , Maybe it can be applied in many fields . So we abstracted bitcoin Technology , It's called blockchain technology , Or distributed ledger Technology . So from a certain point of view , Bitcoin can be seen as the first application of blockchain , And blockchain is more like TCP/IP Such underlying technology , It will expand to more and more industries in the future .
ask ： Which industries can blockchain technology be used in ？
answer ： The main advantage of blockchain is that it doesn't need intermediary participation 、 The process is efficient, transparent and low cost 、 Data is highly secure . So if any industry with any demand in these three aspects has the opportunity to use blockchain Technology .
ask ： Why should the financial sector use blockchain Technology ？ What are the substantial benefits ？
answer ： The main advantages of blockchain technology in the financial field are disintermediation and cost reduction .
First of all, the financial industry is currently facing the problem of preventing single point of failure and systemic risk , We need to carry out layer upon layer audit to control financial risks , But it also creates high internal costs . And because of the increasing number of regulations , especially 2008 As a result of the financial crisis in, the threshold of financial control has been rising , The scope of anti money laundering and anti-terrorism financing caused by the war on terrorism has gradually expanded the scope and depth of supervision , This has led to a sharp increase in regulatory costs across the financial system . under these circumstances , Blockchain technology can greatly reduce the cost of a real financial system through tamper proof and high transparency . According to a report released by Santander, Spain's largest bank ,2020 If blockchain technology is used in banks all over the world around the year , Maybe every year 200 Billion dollars in costs . That's enough to say “ Blockchain ” Great changes and breakthroughs brought to the traditional financial field .
Besides, for historical reasons , As a result, traditional financial institutions rely on the central clearing house for settlement and settlement , The problem is inefficiency . The traditional cross-border settlement is because it has to go through something like SWIFT Such institutions , Therefore, cross-border wire transfers are usually calculated by day . But when bitcoin uses blockchain Technology , In the absence of a centralized operator , It's been running perfectly for seven years , It can not only realize real-time settlement and clearing , And there has been no accounting error . therefore , If all financial systems can achieve decentralized real-time settlement and clearing , Not only will it greatly improve the efficiency of global finance , And it can change the pattern of global finance .
ask ： What bitcoin says “ dig ”？
answer ： In bitcoin “ dig ” Actually, it's the process of bookkeeping , Bitcoin uses a method called “ Proof of workload （Proof of Work,PoW）” The mechanism of , The system is trying to find out who has more computing power , One math problem at a time , Only the computer that can work out the problem the fastest can keep accounts . And the computer that grabs the right to account gets 25 A bitcoin reward . This behavior is often called “ dig ”, Think of bitcoin as a reward for mining success .
ask ： Do all blockchains need mining ？
answer ： Not all blockchain projects will adopt something like bitcoin “ Proof of workload ” The way , This is more in the early blockchain projects . If other proof mechanisms are adopted , Such as “ Proof of interest （Proof of Stake,PoS）”、“ Share authorization certification mechanism （DPoS,Delegate Proof of Stake）” There is no need to adopt such a mining method .
ask ： What's the relationship between blockchain and big data ？ Blockchain will replace Big Data ？
answer ： The relationship between blockchain and big data is not very big . Big data is mainly for the management of massive data , The core of blockchain is to achieve high security and high reliability of data without centralized mediation . So blockchain and big data don't conflict with each other , And it won't replace , It's totally different solutions for data in different scenarios .
ask ： What's the relationship between blockchain and cloud computing cloud storage ？ Is blockchain cloud computing or cloud storage ？
answer ： Cloud computing is usually defined as providing dynamic, scalable and often virtualized resources through the Internet , But it is often a centralized organization that provides cloud computing platform . The network composed of blockchain generally has no specific organization , So blockchain is closer to the definition of distributed computing system , It belongs to a kind of distributed computing . however , Blockchain can realize cloud storage , Different from the centralized cloud storage space at present , Some blockchains provide decentralized cloud storage solutions . Such projects include Storj,Sia,Maidsafe.
ask ： Is blockchain software ？ What program is it written in ？
answer ： Blockchain is not a specific kind of software , It's like “ database ” The three words have the same meaning , It's a design idea for a specific technology . It can be implemented in most languages , And there are many ways to achieve it . And blockchain technology is still in rapid development , Relatively speaking , At present, the design idea of blockchain technology is relatively simple , Maybe it will become more complicated in the future .
ask ： What is the public chain ？ What is a private chain ？ What is the alliance chain ？
answer ： Any node of the public chain is open to anyone , Everyone can participate in this blockchain and participate in Computing , And anyone can download the complete blockchain data （ All the books ）. But in some application scenarios of blockchain , I don't want anyone involved in this system , Anyone can see all the data , Only licensed nodes can participate and view all data . So this kind of blockchain structure is called private chain . Alliance chain means that the permissions of each participating node are completely equal , We can achieve the trusted exchange of data without complete mutual trust ,R3 What the bank blockchain alliance will build is a typical alliance chain . But with the rapid development of blockchain Technology , Do not rule out after the public chain and private chain boundaries will become more fuzzy . Because each node can have more complex read and write permissions , Maybe nodes with partial permissions will be developed to everyone , However, some nodes with accounting or core permissions can only be opened to licensed nodes , It will no longer be a pure public or private chain .
ask ： At present, the main problems in the development of blockchain Technology ？
answer ： At present, blockchain technology is still in a very early stage , Not only has it not yet formed a unified technical standard , And various technical solutions are still developing rapidly . But it used to be thought that the system based on blockchain technology would be very resource intensive （ Similar to bitcoin ）, Or blockchain technology system processing data is limited and other issues have been technically breakthrough . however , For the scalability of blockchain Technology , It has not been tested by large-scale practice , And now it's mainly in the prototype design stage . If quantitative analysis is not available , The practical benefits that blockchain technology can bring us , Including the money saved and the value created , Then the financial industry will remain relatively cautious in the short term . After all , At present, the global financial infrastructure investment has exceeded trillions , To establish a new financial architecture and underlying operating system, it needs to be supported by actual data . In the case that the existing technology has not been deployed and the use case has not been obtained , It is difficult to determine the total amount that can be saved . So far , There is still a big question , It's just how much money is needed to build a strong enough blockchain to handle the platform , The trillions of dollars that the capital market ecosystem needs to face every day .
In addition, the blockchain industry is extremely short of talents , Lack of a lot of knowledge about blockchain Technology , Also know many aspects of financial talents , The market is desperately looking for talent to connect the two worlds , Need to be able to be in the real world , The blockchain technology can be realized in the capital market , And achieve better functionality . We need to build a new system based on blockchain technology , It is necessary to have such cross-border talents .
ask ： What is a smart contract ？
answer ： Smart contract is a kind of contract that uses computer language instead of legal language to record terms . Smart contracts can be executed automatically by a computing system . If blockchain is a database , Smart contract is the application layer that can make blockchain technology applied to reality . The contract in the traditional sense has no direct connection with the computer code that carries out the content of the contract . Paper contracts are mostly filed , And the software will execute the contract terms written in computer code . The potential benefits of smart contracts include reduced contract signing 、 The cost of enforcement and regulation ; therefore , For many contracts related to low value transactions , It's a huge reduction in labor costs .
ask ： How to use smart contracts ？
answer ： If the central bank can issue legal money through blockchain , Then we can also use smart contract technology , Embedding code into the act of issuing legal money , Then this part of the coin can be called “ Programmable currency ”. such as , If the Central Bank specifies that a certain amount of funds should be distributed to agriculture related accounts , Then you can write this part of the funds into the corresponding program , It is specified that this part of funds can only be entered into agricultural related accounts , Then this part of the funds can not be misappropriated to other accounts under any circumstances . If most of the money becomes “ Programmable currency ”, So we can imagine , The financial environment they make up becomes “ Programmable Finance ”.
ask ： What does blockchain have to do with ordinary people ？
answer ： Basically it doesn't matter , Unless you're ready to start a business . Just like TCP/IP The relationship between agreements and ordinary people , Ordinary people don't need to know what's at the bottom of the Internet TCP/IP agreement , Just enjoy the services provided by the Internet .
ask ： Whether blockchain projects must have some kind of currency ？
answer ： No . Bitcoin itself is a payment system , So it needs to have a value measurement tool , So there must be bitcoin appear . Besides , In order to reward more people who are willing to contribute their computers to provide computing for the system , So there needs to be bitcoin To reward . And in some private chain systems , You can design specialized assets to trade , And every node must participate in the calculation , It's their responsibility and their right , So there's no need to think about encouraging them to participate by rewarding them , Therefore, in such a system, it may no longer be necessary to design the existence of some kind of currency .
ask ： Is bitcoin legal now ？
answer ： Bitcoin is in the major world powers , Including China has always been completely legal . Because of the misleading of some bad media , Many people think that China has declared bitcoin illegal . in fact , according to 2013 year 12 month 5 Japan , The notice on preventing bitcoin risks issued by the people's Bank of China and other five ministries and commissions clearly stipulates that , Bitcoin is a specific virtual commodity , Ordinary people have the freedom to participate at their own risk . And all kinds of financial institutions and Payment institutions are not allowed to carry out bitcoin related financial services , Or bitcoin as an investment target .
Bitcoin is the unit of currency in Germany , In the United States, it's defined as commodities . The European Court of justice considers bitcoin as a means of payment , No value added tax .
ask ：XX Can money be invested ？ Is it a blockchain project ？ Is it MLM ？
answer ： At present, all digital currencies, including bitcoin, have high risks , Blockchain technology itself is just in its infancy , All blockchain projects also have very high risks . No ordinary person is recommended to invest in any digital currency and blockchain related projects . And digital currency and blockchain have a certain technical threshold , Ordinary people can't tell which projects are real , Which are MLM projects . So ordinary people suggest not to invest in any of these projects . For any project that you can't tell if it's MLM , Please regard it as a pyramid selling project directly .
ask ： How to invest in blockchain ？
answer ： Most blockchains are in their infancy , And mostly overseas , There are very few good blockchain projects in China , Therefore, it is not recommended that any non professionals invest in blockchain projects . If you're interested in blockchain Technology , I have a technical or financial background , It is suggested to consider starting a business in this area .
ask ： Blockchain / Who invented bitcoin ？ Is Nakamoto Japanese ？ Is it a conspiracy of the US government ？
answer ： Bitcoin is a company that calls itself “ Nakamoto ” Created by a group of people or people , And at the beginning of the bitcoin project, it was completely out of the project .“ Nakamoto ” It's very unlikely to be Japanese , Because he can infer from his past emails , He should be a native English speaker .
In addition, bitcoin creators have no influence on the current bitcoin project , So it's unlikely to be the product of a conspiracy . No matter what “ Nakamoto ” Whether or not there will be , Or being wiped out physically doesn't have much impact on the bitcoin .
ask ： Bitcoin and Q What's the difference between coins ？
answer ：Q Currency is a centralized electronic currency , Including the total amount , The way of distribution is controlled by Tencent . And the total amount of bitcoin , The distribution mode is preset by the program and encryption algorithm , Running on multiple nodes around the world , No one or organization can modify , Not controlled by any single person or institution . It's called Q Money is electronic money , Or corporate tokens . Call bitcoin digital currency or cryptocurrency .
ask ： Is there a limit to the total amount of bitcoin ？ How is it distributed ？
answer ： As I said before , Miners have a chance to get a reward for competing for the right to keep accounts . In the beginning, it was every 10 The minute system rewards the fastest and best bookkeepers 50 Bitcoin , Then this 50 Half every four years , Almost 2140 There won't be any new bitcoin in 2010 , Will reach 2100 The upper limit of 10000 . After this , A transaction fee will be used to reward miners .
ask ：so, What the hell is a blockchain ？
answer ：Blockchain It is a technical solution to collectively maintain the reliability of a data book by means of decentralization and trust . The scheme needs any number of nodes in the participating system , Through a series of data blocks associated using cryptographic methods （block） Each data contains all information exchange data of the system in a certain period of time , The data fingerprint is generated to verify the validity of its information and link to the next database block .
ask ： How to establish stranger trust mechanism ？
answer ： Technically speaking , It is a distributed storage block , Each block will contain the information of a whole blockchain . This determines that the blockchain can operate without a trusted third party , Self incriminating , Abu , Prove yourself ！ Solve the problem of how to establish trust mechanism between two strangers . In real life , To solve the trust between strangers , First, we have to solve the characteristics of information or contract , This refers to some agreements that the blockchain must abide by ：
Extract at any time —— Decentralization features
Don't falsify —— Collective maintenance and supervision
Irrevocably —— Open source and anonymity
Verifiability —— Separable data storage
First , Because the whole network has no central ruler . The system relies on the fairness constraints of multiple participants on the network , Therefore, the rights and obligations of any several nodes are equal , Moreover, each node will store all data on the blockchain . Even if the node is damaged or attacked , Still no threat to the books .
secondly , Make sure that information or contracts cannot be forged . The account book is in the hands of someone or several people , The possibility of counterfeiting is very high , But everyone has an account book , Unless you convince the whole game to surpass 51% People change an account , Otherwise, your tampering will be invalid ,
Again , The information on the blockchain must be irrevocable , Don't destroy at will . Bitcoin's system is open source , The whole system must be open and transparent , Therefore, after a transaction is broadcast all over the network , achieve 6 More than one confirmation will be recorded successfully , Irreversible and irrevocable . So the money you call out , Even if it turns out that the address is wrong , You want to pull back , It's not feasible .
Blockchain information must be verifiable . I can determine whether your record is true or forged through information extraction .
This also answers a question about trust from netizens before .
The attachment ： Zhou Xiaochuan talks about the digitization of RMB