In the last article, we talked about some basic concepts and operation principles of blockchain Technology , And its application in the financial industry , Next, let's analyze the blockchain except on the Internet 、 Outside the financial sector , Is there any other use .
Blockchain and law
The title seems a little big , Let me give you an example ： From the most popular projects in the world DAO The risk of ether currency theft caused by the technical loophole of , Talking about how to participate in the century wave of blockchain as a future oriented legal person . The future development of blockchain will affect not only the Internet and Finance , There are laws and even many industries .
Here is an excerpt from 《 The legal world being changed by bitcoin 》 A real case in ：
6 month 17 Sunday, Friday , It's almost time to get off work in the afternoon , The blockchain wechat group suddenly exploded , So I stopped my work for a while , Take a closer look at the hot topics in the wechat group ： original , It's Ethereum （Ethereum） The founder of Vitalik Buterin stay Slock.it Voice in the community , say DAO There are loopholes , Be attacked , A large number of etheric coins on it are likely to be stolen （likely will be）. After that, I went to the technical community to learn more about , The problem is from DAO Code vulnerability in redeemed smart contracts on , Cause hackers can learn from DAO Steal etheric money that doesn't belong to you . Such news not only caused DAO The sharp fall of the currency itself , Even ether was implicated, falling by nearly... In an hour 20%, Then there are all kinds of rumors , For example, the Ethereum network has stopped blocking , wait （ For fear that the world will not be chaotic, there are many people ！）
Of course , Currency price is on the one hand , On the other hand , Enthusiasts and technology gods in the community are also trying to solve this problem as soon as possible . Since the blockchain and its smart contracts cannot be interfered and stopped by anyone once they start , therefore , Unlike traditional centralized applications, a patch can fix the vulnerability ,DAO As a decentralized application （dapp）, Even if there are loopholes , Can only watch it continue to run , until gas Run out of , The program can stop , Then change the code , Redeploy , The repair is successful only after restart .
2013 end of the year ,Vitalik Buterin, at that time 18 The year-old prodigy put forward the idea of Ethereum （ It's called a child prodigy , For example , As a Russian Canadian , He 3 I learned Chinese last month , And now all the speeches in China are in fluent Chinese , Than facebook Zuckerberg speaks much better Chinese ）, He thinks that , Bitcoin and those fork since bitcoin The code then modifies some parameters 、 Add several new properties “ Competitive currency （ Copycat coin ）” It's like a physical calculator for various purposes , Make one for each scene , It's really unnecessary , It's not unified , Why not build a platform , Then let's write smart contracts for different application scenarios with unified code on this platform ？ The idea of Ethereum is like a blockchain app store,“ Calculator ” Just one. app, To issue digital currency like bitcoin on Ethereum network , At least three lines of code can handle , Technology is no longer the threshold , Trust is the real threshold .
Time passed ,Vitalik Buterin The envisaged Ethereum has already released several versions , It has entered a stage of steady and rapid development , People began to realize the power of blockchain , The first financial institution that strongly opposed bitcoin has become a leader in promoting the development of blockchain Technology , In the world , Barreck 、 HSBC and other banks and financial institutions have launched R3 union , Ping An insurance, as a Chinese enterprise, has also joined the Alliance , At home ,ChinaLedger and BankLedger Successively established , Academic institutions aiming to research and promote blockchain technology “ Wanxiang blockchain lab ” Established and active ,IBM、 Microsoft and other traditional technology giants have invested heavily in the game , This will be another era of technological heroes , Just like the bright stars 80 years , People compare blockchain to 30 The Internet years ago , It's still very incomplete , But it makes people look forward to its future . meanwhile , National strength should not be underestimated , The Federal Reserve convenes a global conference 90 A central bank held a blockchain meeting at its headquarters , Wandering on the edge of leaving the EU, Britain is considering whether to use bitcoin instead of sterling , The Bank of Canada announced the development of legal currency issuance based on blockchain , Sweden and other countries are testing the use of blockchain to register land property rights , Of course , We, governor Zhou Xiaochuan of the Central Bank of China, are also here 1 At the beginning of this month, we announced the release of our “ Digital currency ”……
So we're looking back , As long as there is legal support , Blockchain technology will develop rapidly . Finish the intersection with the law , Let's talk about and the hottest technology at present （ Artificial intelligence ） Intersection .
The impact of blockchain technology on artificial intelligence
As early as the beginning of the year ,IBM Began to integrate the internal blockchain team , Form a business unit that takes into account artificial intelligence and cloud computing platform . The industrial platform will be provided by IBM Global corporate advisory services （Global Business Services） Former senior vice president Bridget van Kralingen Leader . The restructuring was announced last September , At present, with the release of the platform ,IBM The blockchain leadership team will be transferred to the business unit as a whole . In addition to blockchain technology development , The business department will lead IBM, Integrating financial services efforts with Watson's artificial intelligence initiative （Watson）.
The industrial platform is located in IBM Headquarters in Armonk, New York , Will undertake the blockchain R & D responsibility of the whole company , It is also responsible for promoting open technical standards , Achieve the set goal of accelerating market popularization . This new division represents IBM The next stage of blockchain development based on past achievements ;IBM A series of prototypes have been developed in this field , And in Linux The foundation （Linux Foundation） Leading super ledger project （Hyperledger Project） Played a pioneering role in .
2015 Beginning of the year IBM Announced one of the company's early blockchain projects , A combination of BitTorrent、Ethereum and TeleHash Proof of concept mechanism of Technology . Since then, the company has been committed to integrating Watson artificial intelligence technology and distributed ledger technology . This June IBM Set up Watson center in Marina Bay, Singapore （Watson Centre）, The purpose is to take blockchain application as the core , Developing artificial intelligence technology .
We know that security is very important in the field of artificial intelligence , So how can we use blockchain technology to improve the security of artificial intelligence ？
To answer this question, we need to know the trust mechanism of blockchain . For example, let the user of the device register on the blockchain , Users can access at different levels through smart contracts , Provide personalized functions for users at different levels . Blockchain ensures that devices can achieve hierarchical access through user registration , It can not only prevent the equipment from being abused , It can also prevent users from being hurt . Through blockchain, we can better realize the joint ownership and use right of equipment , The blockchain allows users to jointly set the status of the device , And make decisions based on smart contracts . Besides , This registration system will continue throughout the life cycle of the equipment , So that different users 、 Software 、 Hardware can be used to help regulators confirm the exact point in time of equipment failure . therefore , Blockchain as an underlying technology , In addition to the future, it is expected to be beneficial to finance 、 government affairs 、 In addition to the changes brought by various industries such as medical treatment , It will also bring changes to cutting-edge technical disciplines such as artificial intelligence , Produce a chemical reaction .
Blockchain and Internet of things
I still remember when the Internet of things came into being a few years ago , Advertising is that the Internet of things is everything , Everything is interconnected . A few years passed , Let's look at the problems encountered in the development of the Internet of things ： The Internet of things is huge , Centralized management faces challenges -- The Internet of things is the Internet connected with things . Because now the trend of Internet development is to go to the center , This is also a common problem when we studied the Internet （ A center costs too much ）.
So based on the above question , Blockchain technology is very helpful to solve the Internet of things . Let's look at a set of Statistics ： According to the American consulting firm Gartner forecast ,2015 In the world The number of IOT devices will reach 49 One hundred million units , It will also create 695 Hundreds of millions of dollars in revenue . And in the 2020 year , The number of IOT devices will reach 250 About 100 million , The marginal income related to the Internet of things may reach 2630 Billion dollars . Such as How to solve the data management in the Internet of things will become one of the key problems .
Blockchain helps the Internet of things achieve decentralized control ： The decentralization of blockchain provides a method for the self governance of the Internet of things , It can help devices in the Internet of things understand each other , And let the devices in the Internet of things know the differences between different devices The relationship between , Then through addressing and permission control , Realize decentralized control of Distributed Internet of things .
Look at the picture below , Good summary （ Blockchain helps the Internet of things realize “ autonomous ”）.
The above figure means the establishment of multiple regional centers , To achieve the purpose of going to the center .
Blockchain and big data
With the coming of big data Era , More and more personal information and Sensitive information is put on the network , A centralized database is like a piece of meat in a pack of wolves , Will be hackers at any time The target , In recent years, database leaks have been common . Blockchain technology may become an upgrade in the future An entrance to the big data security mechanism . Through blockchain , It can be guaranteed that the whole... Will not be caused by the leakage of a single private key Database leak . One of the developers of Ethereum Roman I think one of the biggest values of blockchain is that you can't manage The identity of the manager changes the information at will , No one can control the blockchain . therefore , We think that although the blockchain is currently in big data There is no very mature case of security application , But it's like a valve that hasn't been opened yet , It has a huge opening Development potential and inspiration .
Let's look at an investigation into the leakage of sensitive data around the world ：
So to solve the problem of big data , In the final analysis, it is to solve the ownership problem of big data .
The decentralization and unforgeability of blockchain just meet this demand , Both It can ensure the safe sharing of big data , It can also solve the ownership problem of big data , Make data “ Be taken from the people , Be used for the people ”.
Blockchain is not a public ledger
At this point, I would like to explain another problem , We talked about the role and of blockchain technology before “ Public ledger ”, In fact, the value of blockchain technology has already exceeded “ Cryptocurrency ” The concept of .
The characteristic of removing an intermediary from a removal center , Then to the non tamperable nature of data , Every feature of blockchain can find applicable problems , The role of blockchain in the real world we live in will be gradually developed , Maybe as some people predicted ： Blockchain technology may reshape our world .
The history of blockchain development
Blockchain from 1.0 To 2.0, Mainly from the emergence of bitcoin , To the recent Internet Finance 2.0, Let's take a look at the development history of this blockchain .
Blockchain (Blockchain) In a distributed peer-to-peer network without a central control point , Using the method of distributed collective operation , Achieve a set of tamper proof , Trusted database technology solutions , It is characterized by decentralized storage 、 Information is highly transparent 、 Not easy to tamper with, etc . To put it more popularly , Blockchain records all transaction information in the whole network by using computer programs “ Open big books ”. In blockchain 1.0 edition , The blockchain is mainly bitcoin , Big financial ledger .
So blockchain 2.0 On this basis , Add wider applications , At this stage of development, we should also solve the following problems , It is also a problem that restricts the rapid development of blockchain ：
First, register . Blockchain is reliable and traceable , That is, the blockchain adopts a method called “Proof of work” Algorithms and some consensus rules , Make sure that only legal blocks can be added ; A block is linked to the blockchain after verification , Will be permanently stored ; The native account chain database on the Internet is indestructible , The recorded information field is associated with and corresponding to the generation time , The information in the trusted account chain is unique , Non tamperability , Therefore, blockchain can be used as a reliable database to record all kinds of information .
The second is to confirm the right . The open source of blockchain can be shared , So that all institutions and people can participate in the operation of the whole system , Each participating maintenance node can replicate to get a copy of the complete database ; So as to confirm the right of the owner of the information . Blockchain is an ideal solution for storing permanent records , For example, authenticity verification 、 Land ownership 、 Equity trading and more applications .“ Little ants ” The system is trying to register the company's equity with blockchain ( shares ), Become the legal record place of the company's register of shareholders and shareholding information .
Third, intelligent management . Blockchain supporters believe that the core contribution of blockchain is to solve the trust problem in the process of multi-point information interaction ——“ General Byzantine question ”. This problem originated in the Byzantine Roman Empire , Because of the vast territory of the Empire , The generals of the Imperial Army are geographically separated , And there are traitors in the general , The traitor will mislead the general's decision , So that they can't win , And getting the generals to agree on a decision based on the right information has become a difficult problem .
In order to facilitate everyone's understanding of blockchain , Let's talk about blockchain 2.0 Just talk directly about finance 2.0.
Although including NASDAQ 、 Morgan chase 、 Citibank 、 UBS group 、 Global financial giants including Goldman Sachs are busy setting up blockchain Laboratories , Competing to invest in relevant technology companies , But what they want is not necessarily to transform the financial infrastructure , What interests them more is that it may help them improve their business efficiency , Cost reduction applications in the following areas .
First, improve the level of automation and reduce operating costs . Various business systems and background work of financial institutions , Often face long process and multiple links , Blockchain is to simplify and automate these manual financial service processes , Provides the possibility of . McKinsey, a management consulting firm, released a report saying , Blockchain finance will realize electronic bond trading 、 Blockchain and programmed transaction , Reduce front and back office labor costs .
Second, improve payment efficiency . For banks , The main attraction of blockchain is that it can be used as a recording system ： reliable 、 Meticulous and irreversible . The most promising application in the short term will be payment , Last year, the global cross-border remittance market reached 5830 Billion dollars , The amount is very large .Ripple Is making it a reality , It is a payment and settlement system based on distributed general ledger . suffer Ripple inspire ,Earthport The company 2015 year 8 Distributed general ledger service was launched in June , It will Ripple The potential and Earthport Combined with cross-border payment services , Use local automatic clearing house (ACH) Settle the balance of payments . meanwhile , Some financial institutions are seriously considering using the blockchain technology behind bitcoin , As an alternative to its clearing and settlement system .
The third is to meet the requirements of supervision and customers for data recording . Deloitte believes that blockchain technology solves the problem that the audit industry has always been meeting the requirements of the public 、 Difficulties in meeting regulatory requirements , Ensure the integrity of all financial data 、 Permanence and irreversibility .
Electronic depository blockchain alliance
We said earlier , Blockchain should develop rapidly , It must need the support of the law . not so bad 8 month 16 Japan , The world's first electronic deposit certificate blockchain Alliance —— Large scale commercial electronic deposit certificate blockchain Alliance “ Legal chain ” Declare established .“ Legal chain ” By Onchain、 Microsoft （ China ） As well as the evidence recording and preservation system established and operated by many institutions such as France dada , It is a multi-party open blockchain alliance .
“ Legal chain ” The participating institutions in the play their respective roles , Create an open Ecology . In the League ,Onchain The underlying blockchain technology provided , Electronic contract with France “ Deep integration ”. The signing time of each electronic contract 、 Signing subject 、 Digital fingerprint information such as file hash value will be broadcast to “ Legal chain ” On each storage node of all members , The file hash value information is synchronously stored in the national authoritative electronic data judicial authentication center . This also answers the previous netizens' trust crisis in the transaction , With “ Legal chain ” Constraints , It will limit the generation of forgery to a certain extent .
Blockchain technology can fully meet the requirements of judicial deposit of electronic evidence . Blockchain is a distributed database system in which nodes participate , It is characterized by decentralization 、 Non modifiable 、 Don't falsify , It can be understood as an account book system . from 2013 year 1 month 1 The newly revised law, which came into force on the th 《 Civil procedure law 》 Make it clear , Electronic data can also be used as evidence . But in practice , Electronic evidence is easy to modify , It is difficult to record completely, which leads to low credibility . Use blockchain technology to establish and operate electronic evidence recording and preservation system , It means that once electronic evidence is stored , Neither side can tamper with , And electronic evidence will be stored at each participant , Help clear the obstacles for electronic data to become effective judicial evidence .
In fact, blockchain 3.0 It also discusses its application and standardization in the derivative field .
What is? Namecoin（ Domain name currency ）？
Namecoin Provide tradition DNS（ Domain name management system ） Service providers have similar functions , The difference is Namecoin Based on decentralized blockchain , Can prevent network censorship , Ensure the free distribution of information .
understand Namecoin Before the feature , I would like to have a look first .com/.cn,com and cn Of DNS Service providers are controlled by the US and China respectively , So the government can censor the content , Even shut down .Namecoin Corresponding .bit domain name ,.bit Provide similar .com Service for , It's just .bit The domain name is permanently written into the blockchain , No one can control , Ensure that the website can freely publish information . Let's take an example , In extreme cases, the U.S. government can turn off the of global influence google.com, But it can't be turned off google.bit.
Namecoin Operating principle ？
Namecoin Share through a peer-to-peer network DNS Query table , As long as someone on the network is running Namecoin Server software , Domain names can be accessed , No one can control it .
Namecoin Facing problems ?
The browser does not support parsing by default .bit website , Need to install plug-ins , This problem will make most people inaccessible .bit Website , It is difficult to popularize .
In addition, it needs to be filed on Chinese websites ,.bit If it cannot be filed, it cannot be hosted in the computer room in China , You can't use it at all .
because Namecoin The anonymous 、 Low cost 、 Features that cannot be reviewed , It also facilitates illegal acts .
therefore ,.bit Just a minority DNS.
Namecoin Application fields of ？
In some countries where freedom of expression is strictly restricted , have access to .bit Bypass regulatory review , Let legal information spread freely .
Application based on the idea of decentralized domain name
Namecoin As the first batch of applications that apply blockchain technology to non monetary fields , It has high research value , Although due to various limitations , At present, it is difficult to popularize , However, its ideas can be applied to various fields . Digital identity authentication service KeyID We have learned from Namecoin Thought .
Introduction to blockchain open source project
The above mentioned are a little big , Some people will ask ： Are these cutting-edge technologies too far away from us ？ Only the big companies , Like what IBM, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China and other large companies can learn , Use it ？ For example, do our children's shoes in the ivory tower have no access to real blockchain projects ？But,you know！ Now it seems that blockchain technicians are looking all over the world , But the theory is not mature , How to learn ？ Now there are some open source projects on the network for us to learn about the application of blockchain .
Bletchley —— Microsoft open source blockchain platform project
Microsoft says it knows the basic principles of blockchain , And its characteristics , The blockchain will be integrated into enterprise level projects . So , Microsoft has opened up Bletchley project ,Bletchley It fully demonstrates Microsoft's open vision ,Bletchley Modular blockchain will give Azure Inject new momentum .
The project focuses on ：
- Build a new open platform .
- Integrated Identity Management , Key management , Privacy management , security management , Operations management and collaboration management .
- Provide high availability 、 A stable platform .
Schematic diagram ：
be based on HyperLedger Expanded item list ：
Smart contract series
- The etheric fang
- The currency
- A little bit of money
The chain of private
Openchain —— Distributed general ledger blockchain tool
- evu -Metaverse
- Bobby alliance chain
- Little ant digital assets
Openchain By blockchain technologies Coinprism Open source distributed general ledger blockchain tool , It is mainly provided to large enterprises and financial institutions ,Openchain When dealing with the data of large enterprises and financial institutions , Compared with traditional blockchain tools , It can greatly reduce the calculation speed , And can reduce costs and counterparty risks .
BitShares This paper aims to establish a point-to-point polymorphic digital asset trading system , Can track gold 、 Silver 、 The value of dollars or other currencies , And let the holder get dividends while avoiding all counterparty risks . BitShares Expand the technology of bitcoin , In a new point-to-point multifunctional network , It provides many traditional currency functions , And checks that can be used together with bitcoin and other common financial assets Account 、 Savings accounts and securities brokerage tools .
In addition to the above introduction , There are also some open source projects of the blockchain Alliance ：
IBM Our family is based on bluemix Recommended solutions for cloud platforms , And bluemix binding
Implement language ：js on Node.js
Coinprism Company open source openchain
Implement language ;C#
Private chain technology based on Ethereum platform , Good name ~
Abstract description ： HydraChain is an extension of the Ethereum platform which adds support for creating Permissioned Distributed Ledgers. Its primary domain of application are private chain or consortium chain setups.
class SQL The way of Blockchain, It's novel and interesting .
Implement language ：C++
forked by: mysql-server