Paul Veradittakit 2021-06-18 23:30:40 阅读数:805
Original title ：《 Pantera partner ： Compare Arbitrum And L2 The advantages and disadvantages of other seeded players in the expansion track 》
Original author ： Paul Veradittakit, Blockchain investment institutions Pantera Capital partner
Original translation ：Perry Wang
2019 Beginning of the year ,Pantera Led the investment Offchain Labs Of Seed round financing ,Offchain Labs To build the Arbitrum agreement , It's a kind of use Optimistic Rollups Ethereum of Technology DApp Expansion solutions . Seems to be （NBA Dallas Rangers boss ） mark · Kuban recently made some additional investments .
On Friday, , Open to developers only Arbitrum The main network is online , Including getting Uniswap Community support , take 「 stay Arbitrum Upper Department Uniswap v3」. You can read more about Arbitrum How it works and how it works with other parts of Ethereum 2 layer （Layer2） Comparison of solutions .
Because Ethereum's design philosophy is to put security and trust above efficiency , With the large-scale popularization of Ethereum and the dramatic increase of transaction throughput , The network efficiency is extremely low . The etheric fang DApp Encrypted users on the Internet suffer from a bad user experience as a result , They usually have to pay exorbitantly high transaction costs , And have to face extremely slow trading time . So to build on Ethereum Layer2 The demand for solutions is growing ,Layer2 The solution found an effective way to package transaction data and publish it to Ethereum network on a regular basis , It solves many inefficiency problems of Ethereum original network .
Offchain Labs Recently announced deployment Arbitrum One, Namely its Layer2 Expansion technology Arbitrum The main network test version of , The technology uses Optimistic Rollups Mechanism .
Arbitrum Around a Rollup Chain construction , The chain execution is submitted to Arbitrum All the transactions on the Internet , And record its data in Ethereum's in box （inbox） In smart contracts .
In order to reflect these transactions on Ethereum , The verifier can aggregate the data of multiple transactions in the inboxes into a concise summary , be called 「 Assertion 」（assertion）, And then publish it to the Ethereum main network . These assertions are optimistically considered valid , Unless challenged by another verifier within the set waiting period ; Incorrect assertions or queries are punishable by forfeiture of funds .
This mechanism effectively reduces the number of individual transactions that must be fully verified in Ethereum network , send Arbitrum Can provide significantly faster trading 、 Reduce transaction costs .
Arbitrum It's also designed to be very developer friendly , And Ethereum virtual machine （EVM） Fully compatible with , And native support Etherscan、Hardhat and Truffle Third party tools . These advantages , as well as Arbitrum Large scale scalability improvements , It makes the protocol attractive to build high throughput DApp A hot seed player for developers .
Support Layer2 The two competing technologies of the protocol are side chain and ZK Rollups.
(Polygon Adopted by the ) The side chain is essentially a completely independent blockchain , It communicates with Ethereum on a regular basis by publishing block headers to Ethereum 「 sync 」. Since these side chains only receive a small part of Ethereum's trading volume , So it can significantly improve cost efficiency and speed . However, since the side chain is completely independent of the underlying blockchain , They are vulnerable to all kinds of attacks , It affects the developer's determination to build on the side chain .
(StarkWare Adopted by the ) ZK Rollups And Optimistic Rollup Technology is similar ： They're under the chain （ In a Rollup On the chain ） Execute the transaction , Record all transaction data , And regularly publish the assertion of aggregating multiple transactions to the Ethereum main network . But with the Optimistic Rollups Different , It's not always optimistic to assume that the assertion is valid . The verifier must also issue the attached proof of validity , namely ZK-STARK. Unfortunately ,ZK-STARK The technology is still immature , It's not a good generalization of , And it's usually very slow to build . The outstanding security guarantee of this technology makes it a long-term candidate for Ethereum expansion solution , But in the current state , They are still difficult to use and handle .
Optimistic Rollups It's somewhere between the side chain and ZK Rollup Between , Through the development of good 、 Available infrastructure , Keep the relationship with ZK-STARK A lot of the same security .
Arbitrum Within a week of the developer's main network beta being launched , More than 250 Projects have been launched one after another , It clearly shows the crazy demand for Ethereum's expansion infrastructure . During this beta , If necessary, ,Arbitrum The team will maintain the ability to suspend or upgrade the network , To eliminate any last-minute errors or inefficiencies . In all projects can be in Arbitrum After building and testing its application on the , The agreement is planned to be open to end users , And begin the transition to complete decentralization .
Final , With cryptocurrency and DeFi Continue to win explosive growth ,Arbitrum For the hope of building a strong Ethereum 、 User friendly and efficient DApp One of the most promising candidates for capacity expansion .
In the past week ,Offchain Labs Expand its Ethereum solution Arbitrum The protocol is deployed on the Ethereum main network . As Layer2 agreement ,Arbitrum Use Optimistic Rollups Smart contract execution data is efficiently and compactly packaged into Ethereum , So as to significantly improve the transaction speed and reduce transaction costs .
Ethereum is undoubtedly the most popular DApp One of the blockchains , All kinds of Ethereum DeFi The agreement locked in nearly 650 Billion dollar assets , Based on Ethereum DApp More than 100,000 Active users . Ethereum network focuses on optimization, verifiability and security , In the face of a large number of transactions received （ Every day near 150 Ten thousand brush ）, Its processing capacity is limited , This leads to extremely slow trading , And Gas The cost is outrageous . Here's a background , At present, Ethereum users expect that their transactions will take about 4 Minutes to complete the settlement , Average Gas The cost is 1 dollar . For larger deals , such as Uniswap transaction ,Gas The cost may be close to 8-9 dollar .
The past year has been marked by Gwei Ethereum is the unit of valuation Gas Fee level , source ：YCharts
In order to better handle Dapp and DeFi The high throughput of the protocol , Several projects have been launched Layer2 Solution , It's called blockchain in construction 「 first floor 」Layer1 On the Ethereum of .Layer2 At a high level, the protocol finds an effective way to package transaction data and publish it to Ethereum network on a regular basis . When the volume is high , Verifying each transaction directly on Ethereum may result in a huge cost 、 Efficiency is as slow as a snail ; and Layer2 Can achieve more significant performance improvements than native Ethereum , Because they effectively reduce the computing load of each transaction on the blockchain network .
Arbitrum Layer2 The key to the solution is Optimistic Rollup. stay Rollup in , Transaction verifiers execute these transactions down the chain , Package multiple deals together , Then the transaction data and a concise account of the final status of the smart contract （ be called 「 Assertion 」） Publish to Layer1 In blockchain .
Arbitrum Special use Optimistic Rollups, The assertions posted to Ethereum are optimistically 「 hypothesis 」 For truth and correctness , Unless challenged by other verifiers . The verifier only asserts —— Without the accompanying proof of validity —— Publish to Ethereum network . To encourage honest verification , The verifier also has to deposit money with Ethereum within a certain period of time . In this window period , If another verifier challenges the original verifier's assertion , They can officially... On Ethereum 「 Challenge 」 The assertion , And put in your own margin . If the original verifier's assertion is incorrect , The original verifier will lose his margin . If the challenger is not right , The Challenger will lose his margin . If an assertion passes a specified time window without any successful challenge , It will be 「 Accept 」 For the real , Will be merged with the final state of the Ethereum blockchain .
Arbitrum Assertion validation and challenges on , source ：Arbitrum Whitepaper
By aggregating multiple transactions into a single interaction with Ethereum （ Publish a single assertion ）,Arbitrum This greatly reduces the total number of individual transactions that Ethereum has to process . All of these deals are still technically 「 Release 」 To Ethereum （ By assertion ）, But networks no longer need to independently verify each transaction （ And completely execute every step of every transaction on each node ）. Besides , Because assertions are designed to be compact , They usually take up less space on the Ethereum blockchain , This helps them to be packaged into Ethereum blocks faster . To make a long story short , These efficiency improvements have brought about a significant increase in transaction speed and cost , bring DApp It's easier to deal with a large number of users and transactions .
From the perspective of Architecture ,Arbitrum The transaction on is submitted to Arbitrum Rollup chain , The latter can be considered as a side chain , It is used to handle the transaction execution under the Ethereum chain . Data from these transactions are recorded , Then it's released to Ethereum, an open in box smart contract . Verifier （ It can be anyone , because Arbitrum It doesn't need permission at all ） Then aggregate the transaction data in the inboxes into assertions , And then release it to Ethereum . External users can simply execute transactions posted to their inboxes , To restore Arbitrum Rollup The current state of the chain .
Arbitrum It is also highly optimized for the difficulty of development , Including complete EVM Compatibility 、 And Etherscan And the integration of Hardhat and Truffle And other popular tools . These characteristics , Plus Arbitrum Large scale scalability improvements , It makes the protocol attractive to build high throughput DApp A hot seed player for developers .
Given the popularity of Ethereum , Some projects have been launched Layer2 Solution , To enhance the scalability of the blockchain . except Optimistic Rollup Beyond technology ,Layer2 Two other popular technologies for the solution are zk-Rollups And side chains .
Polygon（ Formerly known as Matic Network） The side chain used is essentially a completely independent blockchain , Used to execute transactions , Occasionally with Layer1 Blockchain interaction . Because the side chain only deals with Layer1 A small part of the total network traffic , The side chain is high throughput 「 Blocking 」 It's much less likely , Therefore, it can provide lower transaction costs and faster transaction speed . To make sure the side chain and Layer1 Blockchains are consistent , Side chains regularly distribute their block hair to Layer1 chain , Make sure that the two chains are 「 state 」 bring into correspondence with . The side chain improves efficiency by executing transactions outside Ethereum , Reduce the overall computing load of Ethereum . One unfortunate consequence of this is , Side chains are usually not available with Layer1 The same security guarantee of blockchain , Because basically , It requires Layer1 The chain doesn't validate each transaction on its own / block . Invalid state transition attack becomes possible , That is, most of the side chain verifiers collude , Artificially create a block , Stealing money from trading participants , And release the accompanying block to Ethereum to complete the theft .Optimistic Rollups Prevent such attacks by logging all transaction data to Ethereum's inboxes . Anyone can execute a transaction in their inboxes to confirm Rollup The state of the chain , Verify or challenge the verifier's assertion . Side chains and Optimistic Rollups The main difference between them is , The side chain publishes the historical snapshot of the blockchain to Ethereum , and Optimistic Rollups Record the whole blockchain history to Ethereum .
StarkEx Adopted by the ZK-Rollups Technology is architecturally similar to Optimistic Rollups. Both are in separate Rollup Executing transactions in the chain , Then periodically use assertions to log all the data to Ethereum , To verify Rollup transaction . The key difference between the two is , stay zk-Rollups in , The verifier has to issue the proof of validity and their assertion to Ethereum ; And Optimistic Rollups Different ,zk-Rollups The agreement does not optimistically assume that these assertions are valid . Its prefix ZK From the fact that , That is, the attached proof is a ZK-STARK, Or simple and transparent zero knowledge proof .ZK-STARK The specific technical details of are beyond the scope of this article , But in short ,ZK-STARK It's an encryption primitive , Allow users to prove that they 「 understand 」 Some facts , The proof itself does not need to contain any revealing information about the fact .ZK-STARK The main benefit in terms of capacity expansion is that they are very compact , Greatly improve the efficiency of verifiers to publish assertions and related proofs to Ethereum . These proofs also guarantee Rollup The state of the chain is always synchronized with Ethereum ; Since all assertions must be provably valid , Therefore, Optimistic Rollups The difference is , There is no... That may have invalid assertions stored in Ethereum 「 Challenge period 」.
Although it has compact structure and strong security guarantee , But for efficient construction and computation ZK-STARK The technology and abstractions are still quite underdeveloped , Makes this technology difficult to use , And it's usually highly use case specific .ZK Rollups Most existing implementations of can only handle specific types of transactions , Such as token transfer or atom exchange . In addition, they can be very slow to build ; In order to have about 1000 Take a block of a transaction as an example , To build a verification architecture on unprofessional hardware, it may take nearly 20 minute . With special service to ZK-STARKS More professional hardware （ for example GPU Validator ） And encryption abstractions are beginning to emerge ,ZK Rollups May prove to be the most successful Layer2 One of the expansion mechanisms . Until then, , The technology is still very limited in terms of efficiency improvement and usability , This makes Optimistic Rollups Become a more promising solution in the short term .
Launched last week Arbitrum The main network is specially named 「Arbitrum One」, In order to make it clear Arbitrum The flagship blockchain supported by technology . With Arbitrum The continuous development and improvement of the ecosystem , other Rollup chain （ Also used Arbitrum technology , But it may change ） It could also emerge , Tailored for a variety of use cases .
Arbitrum One At present, it is in the main network testing stage , if necessary ,Arbitrum The team will have the ability to suspend and upgrade the blockchain . In the meantime , Developers can feel Arbitrum Security and efficiency of , And screen any last-minute vulnerabilities or errors before the block link receives the daily throughput . at present Arbitrum One Open to all developers who request access （ Already exceeded 250 A project ）, Once all the projects are available in Arbitrum Build and test its Dapp, Access will then be open to end users . The team's goal is to transition to complete decentralization by the end of this summer .
The recent surge in interest in encryption is a double-edged sword —— Bringing new users and sources of liquidity , Then came the serious network congestion in Ethereum 、 Long trading time and huge Gas fee . With the popularity of Ethereum at present and in the future , Building sustainable infrastructure 、 Efficient 、 Safely for more throughput DApp powered , It's more important than ever .
Arbitrum For the use of Optimistic Rollups As Layer2 The expansion mechanism provides a powerful sample of reality , Greatly improve the transaction cost and time efficiency of Ethereum , At the same time, several key security guarantees remain . A lot of projects （250 individual , And it's increasing ） Already in Arbitrum Build on the developer's main web , This demonstrates the need for this scalable infrastructure , And for the present Layer2 The disappointment of the racetrack players . As Ethereum ecosystem continues to flourish ,Arbitrum Layer2 Solutions give birth to a new generation of highly scalable 、 efficient DApp, There are significant improvements for encryption users around the world （ Cheaper 、 Faster ） Experience .
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