Pantera partner: compare the advantages and disadvantages of other seeded players of arbitrum and layer2 expansion track

Paul Veradittakit 2021-06-18 23:30:40 阅读数:805

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pantera partner compare advantages disadvantages

Original title :《 Pantera partner : Compare Arbitrum And L2 The advantages and disadvantages of other seeded players in the expansion track 》

Original author : Paul Veradittakit, Blockchain investment institutions Pantera Capital partner

Original translation :Perry Wang


2019 Beginning of the year ,Pantera Led the investment  Offchain Labs  Of Seed round financing ,Offchain Labs To build the Arbitrum agreement , It's a kind of use Optimistic Rollups Ethereum of Technology DApp Expansion solutions . Seems to be (NBA Dallas Rangers boss ) mark · Kuban recently made some additional investments .

On Friday, , Open to developers only Arbitrum The main network is online , Including getting  Uniswap  Community support , take 「 stay Arbitrum Upper Department Uniswap v3」. You can read more about Arbitrum How it works and how it works with other parts of Ethereum 2 layer (Layer2) Comparison of solutions .   

Because Ethereum's design philosophy is to put security and trust above efficiency , With the large-scale popularization of Ethereum and the dramatic increase of transaction throughput , The network efficiency is extremely low . The etheric fang DApp Encrypted users on the Internet suffer from a bad user experience as a result , They usually have to pay exorbitantly high transaction costs , And have to face extremely slow trading time . So to build on Ethereum Layer2 The demand for solutions is growing ,Layer2 The solution found an effective way to package transaction data and publish it to Ethereum network on a regular basis , It solves many inefficiency problems of Ethereum original network .

Offchain Labs Recently announced deployment Arbitrum One, Namely its Layer2 Expansion technology Arbitrum The main network test version of , The technology uses Optimistic Rollups Mechanism . 

Arbitrum Around a Rollup Chain construction , The chain execution is submitted to Arbitrum All the transactions on the Internet , And record its data in Ethereum's in box (inbox) In smart contracts . 

In order to reflect these transactions on Ethereum , The verifier can aggregate the data of multiple transactions in the inboxes into a concise summary , be called 「 Assertion 」(assertion), And then publish it to the Ethereum main network . These assertions are optimistically considered valid , Unless challenged by another verifier within the set waiting period ; Incorrect assertions or queries are punishable by forfeiture of funds . 

This mechanism effectively reduces the number of individual transactions that must be fully verified in Ethereum network , send Arbitrum Can provide significantly faster trading 、 Reduce transaction costs . 

Arbitrum It's also designed to be very developer friendly , And Ethereum virtual machine (EVM) Fully compatible with , And native support Etherscan、Hardhat and Truffle Third party tools . These advantages , as well as Arbitrum Large scale scalability improvements , It makes the protocol attractive to build high throughput DApp A hot seed player for developers . 

Support Layer2 The two competing technologies of the protocol are side chain and ZK Rollups. 

(Polygon Adopted by the ) The side chain is essentially a completely independent blockchain , It communicates with Ethereum on a regular basis by publishing block headers to Ethereum 「 sync 」. Since these side chains only receive a small part of Ethereum's trading volume , So it can significantly improve cost efficiency and speed . However, since the side chain is completely independent of the underlying blockchain , They are vulnerable to all kinds of attacks , It affects the developer's determination to build on the side chain . 

(StarkWare Adopted by the ) ZK Rollups And Optimistic Rollup Technology is similar : They're under the chain ( In a Rollup On the chain ) Execute the transaction , Record all transaction data , And regularly publish the assertion of aggregating multiple transactions to the Ethereum main network . But with the Optimistic Rollups Different , It's not always optimistic to assume that the assertion is valid . The verifier must also issue the attached proof of validity , namely ZK-STARK. Unfortunately ,ZK-STARK The technology is still immature , It's not a good generalization of , And it's usually very slow to build . The outstanding security guarantee of this technology makes it a long-term candidate for Ethereum expansion solution , But in the current state , They are still difficult to use and handle . 

Optimistic Rollups It's somewhere between the side chain and ZK Rollup Between , Through the development of good 、 Available infrastructure , Keep the relationship with ZK-STARK A lot of the same security . 

Arbitrum Within a week of the developer's main network beta being launched , More than 250 Projects have been launched one after another , It clearly shows the crazy demand for Ethereum's expansion infrastructure . During this beta , If necessary, ,Arbitrum The team will maintain the ability to suspend or upgrade the network , To eliminate any last-minute errors or inefficiencies . In all projects can be in Arbitrum After building and testing its application on the , The agreement is planned to be open to end users , And begin the transition to complete decentralization . 

Final , With cryptocurrency and DeFi Continue to win explosive growth ,Arbitrum For the hope of building a strong Ethereum 、 User friendly and efficient DApp One of the most promising candidates for capacity expansion . 

What is? Arbitrum?      


In the past week ,Offchain Labs Expand its Ethereum solution Arbitrum The protocol is deployed on the Ethereum main network . As Layer2 agreement ,Arbitrum Use Optimistic Rollups Smart contract execution data is efficiently and compactly packaged into Ethereum , So as to significantly improve the transaction speed and reduce transaction costs . 

What is? L2? 


Ethereum is undoubtedly the most popular DApp One of the blockchains , All kinds of Ethereum DeFi The agreement locked in nearly 650 Billion dollar assets , Based on Ethereum DApp More than 100,000 Active users . Ethereum network focuses on optimization, verifiability and security , In the face of a large number of transactions received ( Every day near 150 Ten thousand brush ), Its processing capacity is limited , This leads to extremely slow trading , And Gas The cost is outrageous . Here's a background , At present, Ethereum users expect that their transactions will take about 4 Minutes to complete the settlement , Average Gas The cost is 1 dollar . For larger deals , such as Uniswap transaction ,Gas The cost may be close to 8-9 dollar .


 technology

  The past year has been marked by Gwei Ethereum is the unit of valuation Gas Fee level , source :YCharts


In order to better handle Dapp and DeFi The high throughput of the protocol , Several projects have been launched Layer2 Solution , It's called blockchain in construction 「 first floor 」Layer1 On the Ethereum of .Layer2 At a high level, the protocol finds an effective way to package transaction data and publish it to Ethereum network on a regular basis . When the volume is high , Verifying each transaction directly on Ethereum may result in a huge cost 、 Efficiency is as slow as a snail ; and Layer2 Can achieve more significant performance improvements than native Ethereum , Because they effectively reduce the computing load of each transaction on the blockchain network . 

Arbitrum How to improve the efficiency of Ethereum ?  

Arbitrum Layer2 The key to the solution is Optimistic Rollup. stay Rollup in , Transaction verifiers execute these transactions down the chain , Package multiple deals together , Then the transaction data and a concise account of the final status of the smart contract ( be called 「 Assertion 」) Publish to Layer1 In blockchain .

Arbitrum Special use Optimistic Rollups, The assertions posted to Ethereum are optimistically 「 hypothesis 」 For truth and correctness , Unless challenged by other verifiers . The verifier only asserts —— Without the accompanying proof of validity —— Publish to Ethereum network . To encourage honest verification , The verifier also has to deposit money with Ethereum within a certain period of time . In this window period , If another verifier challenges the original verifier's assertion , They can officially... On Ethereum 「 Challenge 」 The assertion , And put in your own margin . If the original verifier's assertion is incorrect , The original verifier will lose his margin . If the challenger is not right , The Challenger will lose his margin . If an assertion passes a specified time window without any successful challenge , It will be 「 Accept 」 For the real , Will be merged with the final state of the Ethereum blockchain .


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 Arbitrum Assertion validation and challenges on , source :Arbitrum Whitepaper


By aggregating multiple transactions into a single interaction with Ethereum ( Publish a single assertion ),Arbitrum This greatly reduces the total number of individual transactions that Ethereum has to process . All of these deals are still technically 「 Release 」 To Ethereum ( By assertion ), But networks no longer need to independently verify each transaction ( And completely execute every step of every transaction on each node ). Besides , Because assertions are designed to be compact , They usually take up less space on the Ethereum blockchain , This helps them to be packaged into Ethereum blocks faster . To make a long story short , These efficiency improvements have brought about a significant increase in transaction speed and cost , bring DApp It's easier to deal with a large number of users and transactions . 

From the perspective of Architecture ,Arbitrum The transaction on is submitted to Arbitrum Rollup chain , The latter can be considered as a side chain , It is used to handle the transaction execution under the Ethereum chain . Data from these transactions are recorded , Then it's released to Ethereum, an open in box smart contract . Verifier ( It can be anyone , because Arbitrum It doesn't need permission at all ) Then aggregate the transaction data in the inboxes into assertions , And then release it to Ethereum . External users can simply execute transactions posted to their inboxes , To restore Arbitrum Rollup The current state of the chain . 

Arbitrum It is also highly optimized for the difficulty of development , Including complete EVM Compatibility 、 And Etherscan And the integration of Hardhat and Truffle And other popular tools . These characteristics , Plus Arbitrum Large scale scalability improvements , It makes the protocol attractive to build high throughput DApp A hot seed player for developers . 

Arbitrum And Layer2 What are the advantages and disadvantages of other agreements ?     

Given the popularity of Ethereum , Some projects have been launched Layer2 Solution , To enhance the scalability of the blockchain . except Optimistic Rollup Beyond technology ,Layer2 Two other popular technologies for the solution are zk-Rollups And side chains .

Polygon( Formerly known as Matic Network) The side chain used is essentially a completely independent blockchain , Used to execute transactions , Occasionally with Layer1 Blockchain interaction . Because the side chain only deals with Layer1 A small part of the total network traffic , The side chain is high throughput 「 Blocking 」 It's much less likely , Therefore, it can provide lower transaction costs and faster transaction speed . To make sure the side chain and Layer1 Blockchains are consistent , Side chains regularly distribute their block hair to Layer1 chain , Make sure that the two chains are 「 state 」 bring into correspondence with . The side chain improves efficiency by executing transactions outside Ethereum , Reduce the overall computing load of Ethereum . One unfortunate consequence of this is , Side chains are usually not available with Layer1 The same security guarantee of blockchain , Because basically , It requires Layer1 The chain doesn't validate each transaction on its own / block . Invalid state transition attack becomes possible , That is, most of the side chain verifiers collude , Artificially create a block , Stealing money from trading participants , And release the accompanying block to Ethereum to complete the theft .Optimistic Rollups Prevent such attacks by logging all transaction data to Ethereum's inboxes . Anyone can execute a transaction in their inboxes to confirm Rollup The state of the chain , Verify or challenge the verifier's assertion . Side chains and Optimistic Rollups The main difference between them is , The side chain publishes the historical snapshot of the blockchain to Ethereum , and Optimistic Rollups Record the whole blockchain history to Ethereum . 

StarkEx Adopted by the ZK-Rollups Technology is architecturally similar to Optimistic Rollups. Both are in separate Rollup Executing transactions in the chain , Then periodically use assertions to log all the data to Ethereum , To verify Rollup transaction . The key difference between the two is , stay zk-Rollups in , The verifier has to issue the proof of validity and their assertion to Ethereum ; And Optimistic Rollups Different ,zk-Rollups The agreement does not optimistically assume that these assertions are valid . Its prefix ZK From the fact that , That is, the attached proof is a ZK-STARK, Or simple and transparent zero knowledge proof .ZK-STARK The specific technical details of are beyond the scope of this article , But in short ,ZK-STARK It's an encryption primitive , Allow users to prove that they 「 understand 」 Some facts , The proof itself does not need to contain any revealing information about the fact .ZK-STARK The main benefit in terms of capacity expansion is that they are very compact , Greatly improve the efficiency of verifiers to publish assertions and related proofs to Ethereum . These proofs also guarantee Rollup The state of the chain is always synchronized with Ethereum ; Since all assertions must be provably valid , Therefore, Optimistic Rollups The difference is , There is no... That may have invalid assertions stored in Ethereum 「 Challenge period 」. 

Although it has compact structure and strong security guarantee , But for efficient construction and computation ZK-STARK The technology and abstractions are still quite underdeveloped , Makes this technology difficult to use , And it's usually highly use case specific .ZK Rollups Most existing implementations of can only handle specific types of transactions , Such as token transfer or atom exchange . In addition, they can be very slow to build ; In order to have about 1000 Take a block of a transaction as an example , To build a verification architecture on unprofessional hardware, it may take nearly 20 minute . With special service to ZK-STARKS More professional hardware ( for example GPU Validator ) And encryption abstractions are beginning to emerge ,ZK Rollups May prove to be the most successful Layer2 One of the expansion mechanisms . Until then, , The technology is still very limited in terms of efficiency improvement and usability , This makes Optimistic Rollups Become a more promising solution in the short term .


Arbitrum What's next ? 


Launched last week Arbitrum The main network is specially named 「Arbitrum One」, In order to make it clear Arbitrum The flagship blockchain supported by technology . With Arbitrum The continuous development and improvement of the ecosystem , other Rollup chain ( Also used Arbitrum technology , But it may change ) It could also emerge , Tailored for a variety of use cases . 

Arbitrum One At present, it is in the main network testing stage , if necessary ,Arbitrum The team will have the ability to suspend and upgrade the blockchain . In the meantime , Developers can feel Arbitrum Security and efficiency of , And screen any last-minute vulnerabilities or errors before the block link receives the daily throughput . at present Arbitrum One Open to all developers who request access ( Already exceeded 250 A project ), Once all the projects are available in Arbitrum Build and test its Dapp, Access will then be open to end users . The team's goal is to transition to complete decentralization by the end of this summer . 


A little thought  


The recent surge in interest in encryption is a double-edged sword —— Bringing new users and sources of liquidity , Then came the serious network congestion in Ethereum 、 Long trading time and huge Gas fee . With the popularity of Ethereum at present and in the future , Building sustainable infrastructure 、 Efficient 、 Safely for more throughput DApp powered , It's more important than ever .

Arbitrum For the use of Optimistic Rollups As Layer2 The expansion mechanism provides a powerful sample of reality , Greatly improve the transaction cost and time efficiency of Ethereum , At the same time, several key security guarantees remain . A lot of projects (250 individual , And it's increasing ) Already in Arbitrum Build on the developer's main web , This demonstrates the need for this scalable infrastructure , And for the present Layer2 The disappointment of the racetrack players . As Ethereum ecosystem continues to flourish ,Arbitrum Layer2 Solutions give birth to a new generation of highly scalable 、 efficient DApp, There are significant improvements for encryption users around the world ( Cheaper 、 Faster ) Experience .  

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