Wanxiang blockchain 2021-04-01 21:59:50 阅读数:16
2020 The year is drawing to a close , Although the epidemic is sweeping the world , But it has not affected the progress of the blockchain industry . In this year , Both public chain and ecological application have made breakthroughs , Countries' policies on blockchain and encrypted assets are also gradually improved . This article is a review of the progress of the blockchain industry this year , Especially the progress in the public chain , It focuses on bitcoin 、 The etheric fang 、Polkadot and Filecoin These four high-temperature public chains .
The biggest technological advance of bitcoin this year is Taproot/Schnorr upgrade , This is by bitcoin developers Pieter Wuille Put forward , As a bitcoin improvement proposal （BIPs） Release , The serial number of the relevant proposal is BIP 340-342, Now it has been officially incorporated into the main branch of bitcoin code . This is the biggest technology expansion of bitcoin since the lightning network was launched .
（ One ）Schnorr upgrade
Bitcoin currently uses ECDSA Signature algorithm and the upcoming Schnorr Signature algorithm , All belong to elliptic curve digital signature algorithm , They all use elliptic curves secp256k1 And hash functions SHA256, So at this level they have the same security .
Schnorr Signature algorithm has the following advantages .
First of all ,Schnorr The signature algorithm has provable security . In the assumption of elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem the difficulty of random Fable （Random Oracle） Model , And assuming that the original image is resistant （Preimage Resistance） And secondary image resistance （Second Preimage Resistance） Under the general group model of ,Schnorr Signature algorithm has strong unforgeability under selective message attack （Strong Unforgeability under Chosen Message Attack,SUF-CMA）. In other words , If you don't know Schnorr Signed private key , Even if there is a valid for any message Schnorr Signature , There's no way to deduce other valid Schnorr Signature . and ECDSA The provable security of the signature algorithm depends on a stronger assumption .
second ,Schnorr The signature algorithm is non malleable （Non-malleability）. Signature extensibility means , The third party does not know the private key , Can be valid for a public key and message signature , Transform to another valid signature for the public key and information .ECDSA Signature algorithms are inherently malleable , This is a BIP 62 and BIP 146 Problems to be addressed .
Third ,Schnorr The signature algorithm is linear , To enable multiple partners to generate signatures that are also valid for the sum of their public keys . This feature for multiple signatures 、 Batch validation （Batch Verification） Applications like this are very important , It can improve efficiency , It also helps to protect privacy . And in the ECDSA Under the signature algorithm , If there is no additional witness data , Batch validation is relative to one by one validation and the invalid rate is increased .
Last ,Schnorr The signature algorithm uses the same elliptic curve secp256k1 And hash functions SHA256, It can be compatible with the current bitcoin public and private key generation mechanism .
（ Two ）Taproot upgrade
Taproot Upgrade can be seen as Merck's abstract language tree （Merkelized Abstract Syntax Tree, abbreviation MAST） An application of , and MAST Also with payment to script hash （Pay-to-Script-Hash, abbreviation P2SH） of .
P2SH yes 2012 A new type of transaction launched in , Making complex scripts as easy to use as paying directly to bitcoin addresses . stay P2SH in , Complex locking scripts are replaced by their hash values , Called the redemption script （Redeem Script）. When a subsequent transaction attempts to spend this UTXO when , Must contain script matching hash value , And unlock the script .
P2SH Key benefits include ： One is in the transaction output , Complex scripts are replaced by hash values , Make the transaction code shorter . The second is to transfer the burden of building scripts to the receiver , Not the sender . Third, better privacy protection . Theoretically , Except for the receiver , Any other party may not know the payout terms included in the redemption script . such as , In multiple transactions , The sender may not know the public key related to the multi signature address ; Only when the recipient is spending money , Public key . but P2SH There are also shortcomings ： One is that all possible spending conditions must eventually be disclosed , Include those spending conditions that are not actually triggered . Second, when there are multiple possible conditions for expenditure ,P2SH It's going to be complicated , It will increase the workload of calculation and verification .
but P2SH With the common payment to public key hash （Pay-to-Public-Key-Hash,P2PKH） It's not the same in performance , There are still privacy issues .Taproot The problem is to make P2SH and P2PKH Looks the same on the chain （ chart 1）：1、 Yes “ Uncooperative expenditure ” Script , take MAST form ;2、 Yes “ Collaborative spending ” Script , Take based on Schnorr Multi signature algorithm of signature ;3、 take “ Collaborative spending ” And “ Uncooperative expenditure ” Together, it means P2PKH form ;4、“ Collaborative spending ” Act like P2PKH transaction , There is a public key and a corresponding private key , There is no need to disclose the underlying MAST, And only in “ Uncooperative expenditure ” when , We need to disclose MAST The existence of , But only the part of the script that was executed needs to be disclosed .
The scalability of Ethereum has always been a problem , In especial 2020 year DeFi Application explosion , Network congestion leads to high handling charges . Lack of performance makes it difficult for Ethereum to achieve “ World computer ” The requirements of , It also affects the user experience . Expansion is the top priority of Ethereum network ,2020 The progress of Ethereum was mainly focused on capacity expansion , It is divided into two parts ： One is Ethereum 2.0 The preparation and launch of , The other is Layer 2 The development of the expansion scheme , among Rollup The route is most prominent .
（ One ） The etheric fang 2.0 The progress and route of
In the development of Ethereum , To PoS The public chain is “ quiet ” The goal of the phase , Ethereum 2.0. after ETH The output from mining will change to Staking, Become Staking Nodes need collateral 32 individual ETH. In the original plan , The etheric fang 2.0 It will be launched in three stages , Namely Phase 0、Phase 1 and Phase 2. The etheric fang 2.0 A blockchain multi chain structure that adds pieces to the beacon chain , All fragment chains are connected to the beacon chain , The beacon chain is responsible for the communication between fragment chains , And elect the validation committee members for each segment chain .Phase 0 The stage will launch the beacon chain and open Staking,Phase 1 Will be online fragment chain , The preliminary plan has 64 A shard , But it doesn't support smart contracts and transfers ,Phase 2 The smart contract will only be launched at the stage , Officially complete Ethereum 2.0 Deployment of . In Ethereum 2.0 The roadmap in , The whole program will be in 2022 Years to complete .
The etheric fang 2.0 The starting condition of the network is more than 16384 A verifier mortgaged 32 individual ETH, That is, at least it needs to be 16384 Nodes participate in . The etheric fang 2.0 Of Phase 0 The stage has come to 12 month 1 Day opening , At present, the number of active nodes is 26861, It will increase in the future . These participation Staking Of ETH Only in Ethereum 2.0 Of Phase 2 The transfer can only be made after the stage is completed . The etheric fang 2.0 It is the long-term strategic goal of Ethereum , But the founder of Ethereum Vitalik I have sent many articles in support of rollup Application in Ethereum .
Recently, the Ethereum development team and Vitalik In his public speech , They admit that Ethereum 2.0 The route has changed , It includes the following points ：1、 The road map for the future will be Rollup Centered ,Phase 1 The stage is simplified to be available Rollup The data used is sliced , Since the advantages originally conceived have not yet been realized ,eWASM No more emphasis on ;2、 Simplify Ethereum 1.0 and 2.0 The combination of stages , Will Ethereum 1.0 The transaction is stored directly in the beacon chain rather than as a fragment in Ethereum 2.0 in , This will shorten the process of merging ;3、 Parallel processing of work , Light client 、 Data fragmentation and 1.0 And 2.0 The three are independent of each other , As long as each part is ready to be realized .
From Ethereum 2.0 These changes show that , It's all in the direction of faster landing . introduce Rollup The solution is not only to solve the current urgent expansion needs , It's also good for innovation . The etheric fang 2.0 The original route has not been completely abandoned , It's just that it's no longer the highest priority .
（ Two ） With Rollup The central route
Layer 2 The way to solve the problem of scalability is to transfer the behavior operation on the main chain to the off chain , In order to save the main chain resources , At the same time, it does not affect the public chain itself .Layer 2 Mainstream solutions have state channels 、 Side chain 、Plasma and Rollup. But the first three have encountered various bottlenecks in their development in recent years , For example, centralization , User operation is complex , Smart contracts are not supported , The exit mechanism is complex .Rollup The implementation of the scheme is to package the transaction data into a transaction in the chain and then transfer it to the chain , At the same time guarantee and Layer 1 Layer consistent security .
For how to achieve Rollup, Different teams come up with different solutions .Optimistic Rollup and ZK Rollup At present, the development team is the most widely used two kinds of .Optimistic Rollup Through the fraud proof mechanism , Make sure nodes don't do evil ,ZK Rollup Zero knowledge proof is used to ensure the same security as the main network . These two schemes have their own advantages and disadvantages ,Optimistic Rollup Support for smart contracts , But the exit period is longer , It will affect the utilization rate of funds ,ZK Rollup The exit period is shorter , But it's hard to support generic smart contracts .
At present, many applications on Ethereum have been or will be different Rollup Test network test of , for example Curve、Synthetix and Uniswap etc. , Some are already based on Rollup The solution is online DeFi project .
（ One ） Technology and governance progress
2020 year 8 month Polkadot launched DOT Transfer function , It marks the formal completion of the main network line stage .Polkadot It is a heterogeneous multi chain architecture , It adopts the form of relay chain and parallel chain to cross link , Let chain to chain interaction and improve scalability , Among them Substrate Framework plays an important role .Substrate It can be understood as a general set of various functions of the template , Developers can choose to call different modules （pallet） To save development time . at present Substrate launched 2.0 edition , Added 70 Multiple pallet And off chain machine function .
Kusama The test network is in Polkadot After the main network goes online, it still exists , Act as a leading network , Kusama Token of KSM It's also preserved , Function and DOT similar . Functions with risks before they go online to the main network , Will be in Kusama Running feedback on the Internet , For example, the parallel chain slot auction that will be launched soon , Will go online first Kusama After the actual test, it will be in Polkadot Start the .Rococo It's a test network designed to test parallel chains , So far, parallel chains have been launched V1.0 edition , It means that it is a step closer to the parallel chain of the main network .
In terms of governance ,Polkadot On the chain governance has started , But the problems of big power and low public turnout still exist .Polkadot The Council is elected by vote , This vote and the referendum and Staking No conflict , That is to say, the big family can elect members of the Council who are in accordance with their wishes , Use what you have in your hands DOT Take part in the referendum . Although this approach allows governance outcomes to express the wishes of the largest stakeholders , But it will lead to the centralization of governance . Besides , In the referendum ,DOT The voting rate of the holders is very low . stay Polkadot in ,Staking There is no interaction with governance voting , at present Staking The pledge rate is in 70% about , But the turnout for the referendum was in the single digits . Low turnout will affect the degree of distribution of governance , And the will of all people cannot be truly reflected . This may be due to the complexity of repeating voting , It may also be that users don't know the content of the proposal , Can't make a choice .
（ Two ） Ecological progress
although Polkadot The function of the main network is not perfect , But many applications have sprung up in Ecology . according to PolkaProject Statistics , And Polkadot Related projects have reached nearly 300 individual , Including based on Substrate Projects developed 、 Tools 、 Forum 、 Wallet, etc . The figure below 2 yes PolkaProject Summary of the Polkadot Ecological Overview .
chart 2：Polkadot Ecological Overview （ picture source ：PolkaProject.com）
Polkadot The ecological application of is mainly concentrated in DeFi, This is also the most popular area in the industry at present , Others have data 、 Privacy and asset bridges . Compared with other public chain platforms ,Polkadot There's little about games 、 Prediction and social applications , This is related to Polkadot It's about , It is also because some applications have been falsified in other public chains or have little significance across chains . stay DeFi field , Liquidity release and DEX It's the hottest plate ,Polkadot Medium DOT There are many ways to lock in liquidity , Include Staking、 Governance and slot auctions （ Governance and locking of other functions do not conflict ）, So there is a need to release liquidity ,DEX It is a necessary application for value exchange on the chain .
at present Polkadot Almost all of the ecological applications of the system need to be based on parallel chains , Applications without online main network still need Polkadot The verifier on the relay chain guarantees security , So these projects have to participate in the parallel chain slot auction .
Polkadot The network resources are limited , At present, the most support is 100 Parallel chains , If you want to use the parallel chain, you need to rent the parallel chain slot . The slot is made of Polkadot The official released , Open one at regular intervals , The time interval is not fixed . The rental slot needs to be locked DOT, Waiting for release at the end of the lease . Lease locked DOT It will be returned at the end of the lease , So the cost of leasing is just DOT The opportunity cost of .Polkadot Allow others to deposit DOT, Help the project to win the auction , This requires the project side to set up an effective incentive way to attract DOT holder .
Generally speaking , The project side will put their own token Reward users who help them with parallel chain auctions , This is also known as parallel chain release distribution （Parachain Lease Offering,PLO）. Also for users , Participate in PLO The cost of locking DOT The opportunity cost of . at present DOT There are Staking、 government 、 Trading and parallel chain leasing , There will be some application scenarios in the future . about DOT For long-term holders of , If the project side gives token The value of participation is higher than that of participation staking（ Currently in 10% above ） Or some DeFi Revenue , It will be more advantageous .
In official information , The original parallel chain was distributed by auction ,Web3 It will also sponsor some public welfare chains , This includes chains containing infrastructure or bridging bridges . For example, parallel chains related to smart contracts , In the use of the card slot, you may get Web3 With the help of the . If you don't get the slot , There are also several options that can be involved in cross chain , Use parallel threads and deploy to other parallel chains that have already got the slot , If you already have your own home network , It can also be transferred to Polkadot On .
（ 3、 ... and ）Polkadot Problems in Ecology
The slot of the parallel chain will be leased , It means the vast majority of Polkadot The project has to pay the cost （ mortgage DOT） Exchange for Polkadot Cross chain resources on , So with Polkadot The threshold of parallel chain distribution for relay chain security has been raised a lot . For most projects , Only projects that can afford to rent cross chain resources can use Polkadot The security of , Otherwise, deploy the node yourself , This will make it more difficult to start early projects . At present, the project side adopts PLO There will be sustainability issues with solutions , If Token After distribution , Other ways must be used to attract users to assist in the auction , Project side Token There are also risks in the value capture ability after the parallel chain goes online . In the competitive situation of parallel chain slot auction , The project side must carry out large-scale publicity activities before going online , Cold start in Polkadot Ecology will be very difficult to exist . If the future is competitive , Out of the competition for cross chain resources , The project will appear before it goes online “ Superior bad discard ” The situation of .
But in the Polkadot There are other cross chain solutions on , For example, parallel threads or integration into other projects with parallel chain slots , You can also choose Kusama Online distribution to reduce costs . The difference between the current availability of parallel chains and parallel threads , In other ways, the burden of cross chain on the team needs to be observed continuously after going online .
Polkadot And test network Kusama There is little difference in function , So teams that pursue different stability will have different choices , But it's going to lead to user and community fragmentation . Although the two will not diverge in technology upgrading , But in the beginning, the two communities were separated , It's creating a division of the community in invisibility .
Polkadot The goal is the platform of the platform , The cross chain between public chains is one of the problems it solves . For the public chain , The default cross chain problem only exists between mainstream public chains , Current solutions are emerging ,Polkadot How to win out of many cross chain solutions remains to be seen .Polkadot There are also advantages in improving single chain performance , There are also many ways to improve performance , for example layer 2 The Internet ,Polkadot It also takes time to test its role .
Polkadot In the enterprise platform and public chain 、 The imagination space of cross chain between enterprise platform and enterprise platform is relatively large , But the cost and significance of cross chain also need to be further investigated , At present, the connection between alliance chain and public chain is not urgent .
Filecoin For distributed storage IPFS Provides incentives , Core members also include IPFS member , Both by Protocol Lab establish , Once launched, it has attracted worldwide attention . stay 2017 Year by year 10% A share of 2.57 Billion dollar financing , Set the highest record of the time . The online process is far less smooth than financing , This plan 2018 The test network and the main network launched in 2008 have been delayed again and again , In the end to 2020 year 10 It was officially launched . although Filecoin The project has been delayed for two years , But there's still a community fever , Especially the miners community .
（ One ） Current progress
stay Filecoin In the consensus , The expected consensus is used for block output （EC） The pattern of , It means electing one or more miners in each round to create a new block , The probability of a miner winning the election is proportional to the miner's current storage capacity . The storage capacity of miners is proved by using time and space （PoSt） And proof of reproduction (PoRep) To prove . Spatiotemporal proof can use proof chain and time stamp to prove that miners store data in a certain period of time , Even if the verifier is not online , It can also be verified in the future that the miner has generated a chain of proof in this period of time , Effectively prevent temporary data generation attacks . Replication proof can prove that the data has been successfully created in a specific sector . And guard against three kinds of attacks : One is witch attack ; Second, external data source attacks ; Third, generate attacks . Replication proof avoids allowing miners to make their own storage data smaller than the promised storage data through different methods , In order to get extra pay .
The miner's reward will be released linearly , Every time 6 The annual output is halved . at present Filecoin The storage capacity of has broken through 1 EiB（Exbibyte）, Now we have reached 1.27EiB, The number of active miners is 789. Although in Filecoin The browser shows miners in Asia 、 The European 、 In North America 、 Oceania and Africa , But from the label and disclosure information, it is not difficult to see that the majority of participants are Chinese miners . On the distribution of effective computing power of miners , There's no centralization like the bitcoin pool .
chart 3： Distribution of effective computing power of miners （ picture source ：filfox.info）
（ Two ） Economic mechanism and current situation
stay Filecoin There are two markets in the economic model ： Storage and retrieval market , There are customers and miners in the two markets . In addition to these two roles ,Filecoin There are developers and investors in economic model ecology .
In the storage market , Miners can be rewarded in three ways : One is the transaction fee ; Second, block rewards ; Third, the network transaction acceleration fee （Networking Message Transaction Fees）. Transaction fee and online transaction acceleration fee are paid by customers in advance , Block rewards are generated by the system .Filecoin Different from bitcoin network, the main difference lies in the nature of services provided ： Storage is a long service ,Filecoin It takes miners a long time to keep the network stable , Not like the bitcoin network , Miners are free to come in and out . The pledge mechanism has also been introduced into the storage market , It's a miner punishment mechanism , The purpose is to protect Filecoin Storage market customer data is not lost .
Every user and miner's storage protocol , Storage market miners will store the data provided by customers in the network , It's called a sector (Sector). The sector added by each miner will contain the content of the stored file and the promised storage time , Make sure the customer is in the agreed storage time , You can use your own data freely . Add a miner to a sector Filecoin When the network , Miners need to pledge a lock-in Fund . Lock in funds consist of two parts : The miner's own FIL Token and some block rewards . If the miner is offline for the promised storage time , He'll lose some of his lock-in money . If the miner stops storing completely , He may lose all the locked tokens . The locked funds will be unlocked after the miner has fulfilled the storage agreement , Miners can recover all their money after a short lock-in period .
That means the miners need to pledge FIL To get block rewards , but FIL The token is linear and gradually released . At present, the effective computing power is growing too fast , In addition, in the early stage of online FIL Prices are too high and volatile , The linear release time period is long , Many miners are reluctant to pay out of their own pocket to buy the mortgage they need at a high level FIL, So in the early days of the launch, the miners “ Strike ” Events , A lot of storage capacity due to not enough FIL And can't get into Filecoin The Internet , But this has a lot to do with the oversold of mining machinery . Miners have no governance channels, so they choose to confront the project side , In the end, the project side compromised , The reward for mining will be from 180 Antenna release changed to and release 25%, The remaining 75% And then linear release . besides , In order to solve FIL The shortage of , Both the official and the relevant service providers in the market are preparing or have been launched FIL Lending services .
（ 3、 ... and ） The future development
because Filecoin And it is the centralized decision-making of corporatization that has caused dissatisfaction among many miners , So like other public chain projects , So far, we have launched the bifurcation project , for example Filecash,FileStar etc. .
At present, it's easy to see what appears in Filecoin At present, the mining market is hot ,FIL The price is also related to it . But in the original design ,FIL The supply and demand and price are regulated by market service . Miners need a pledge FIL To get block rewards , And FIL The token is linear and gradually released , Therefore, the supply side is expected to grow slowly and the growth rate index will decline . On the demand side, the demand for services is gradually increasing , All participants in the market must continue to buy FIL. To maintain the stability of service price , No matter what FIL Up or down , The price for storing and retrieving transaction fees needs to be anchored in fiat or stable currency . When FIL When the price goes up , Customers will pay less FIL Unit transaction fee and network acceleration fee , The proportion of reward in the mining area increased . When FIL When prices fall , Customers will pay higher FIL Unit transaction fee and network acceleration fee , The proportion of reward in the mining area decreased . Suppose only the service demand factor is considered ,FIL When the price goes up , Customers buy in the secondary market FIL Will slow down ,FIL When prices fall , Customers buy in the secondary market FIL It's going to go up , To achieve the function of regulating the secondary market .
But at present, the number of miners is far greater than the number of users , The supply of storage capacity is greater than the demand , This balance is broken . The currency of the PoW Whether the miners join or not is decided by the profit , So with the rise of the currency price, more and more miners and computing power have joined the bitcoin network , It's a gradual process . However Filecoin Before going online, there have been a large number of mining machinery production and sales , If the miner can't access the network to mine, it's difficult to maintain cash flow , If the mining revenue is not ideal, it will also affect the interests of mining machinery manufacturers , at present Filecoin The network storage market is not just for customers and miners to participate in . future Filecoin The market mechanism in can work , Whether there are real users still need to continue to observe .Filecoin Whether the anti censorship of storage will restrict its development in the global market also needs to be observed .
For now , except Filecoin It's about storage , At present, most public chain projects use PoS The underlying consensus mechanism , The difference between them is that PoS The specific implementation method of 、 Governance mechanism and economic model, etc , In the future, Ethereum will also adopt PoS Consensus . Although the public chain has no application scenario restrictions , The convergence of applications on the chain means that they are in a competitive relationship . Future applications in Ethereum 2.0 Stage migration and Polkadot The development of ecological application is the next hot spot in the field of public chain .
For the public chain itself , Performance and safety 、 How to balance the three aspects of decentralization is still a problem , Like Ethereum Rollup Project and Ethereum 2.0 The problems of the scheme , Looking for the balance of the three is still the breakthrough of the public link down .
《 Public chain chapter 》 The end , Next 《 Application articles 》 I'll take you back to 2020 The development of blockchain applications in , Take a look at the blockchain applications that have stirred waves around the world this year , What can we learn from it .《 Application articles 》 It will be on next Wednesday （12 month 16 Japan ） Release , Coming soon ！
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